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Documents authored by Shenwald, Noam


Document
Games with Trading of Control

Authors: Orna Kupferman and Noam Shenwald

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 279, 34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023)


Abstract
The interaction among components in a system is traditionally modeled by a game. In the turned-based setting, the players in the game jointly move a token along the game graph, with each player deciding where to move the token in vertices she controls. The objectives of the players are modeled by ω-regular winning conditions, and players whose objectives are satisfied get rewards. Thus, the game is non-zero-sum, and we are interested in its stable outcomes. In particular, in the rational-synthesis problem, we seek a strategy for the system player that guarantees the satisfaction of the system’s objective in all rational environments. In this paper, we study an extension of the traditional setting by trading of control. In our game, the players may pay each other in exchange for directing the token also in vertices they do not control. The utility of each player then combines the reward for the satisfaction of her objective and the profit from the trading. The setting combines challenges from ω-regular graph games with challenges in pricing, bidding, and auctions in classical game theory. We study the theoretical properties of parity trading games: best-response dynamics, existence and search for Nash equilibria, and measures for equilibrium inefficiency. We also study the rational-synthesis problem and analyze its tight complexity in various settings.

Cite as

Orna Kupferman and Noam Shenwald. Games with Trading of Control. In 34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 279, pp. 19:1-19:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{kupferman_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.19,
  author =	{Kupferman, Orna and Shenwald, Noam},
  title =	{{Games with Trading of Control}},
  booktitle =	{34th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2023)},
  pages =	{19:1--19:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-299-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{279},
  editor =	{P\'{e}rez, Guillermo A. and Raskin, Jean-Fran\c{c}ois},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.19},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-190137},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2023.19},
  annote =	{Keywords: Parity Games, Rational Synthesis, Game Theory, Auctions}
}
Document
Perspective Games with Notifications

Authors: Orna Kupferman and Noam Shenwald

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 182, 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)


Abstract
A reactive system has to satisfy its specification in all environments. Accordingly, design of correct reactive systems corresponds to the synthesis of winning strategies in games that model the interaction between the system and its environment. The game is played on a graph whose vertices are partitioned among the players. The players jointly generate a path in the graph, with each player deciding the successor vertex whenever the path reaches a vertex she owns. The objective of the system player is to force the computation induced by the generated infinite path to satisfy a given specification. The traditional way of modelling uncertainty in such games is observation-based. There, uncertainty is longitudinal: the players partially observe all vertices in the history. Recently, researchers introduced perspective games, where uncertainty is transverse: players fully observe the vertices they own and have no information about the behavior of the computation between visits in such vertices. We introduce and study perspective games with notifications: uncertainty is still transverse, yet a player may be notified about events that happen between visits in vertices she owns. We distinguish between structural notifications, for example about visits in some vertices, and behavioral notifications, for example about the computation exhibiting a certain behavior. We study the theoretic properties of perspective games with notifications, and the problem of deciding whether a player has a winning perspective strategy. Such a strategy depends only on the visible history, which consists of both visits in vertices the player owns and notifications during visits in other vertices. We show that the problem is EXPTIME-complete for objectives given by a deterministic or universal parity automaton over an alphabet that labels the vertices of the game, and notifications given by a deterministic satellite, and is 2EXPTIME-complete for LTL objectives. In all cases, the complexity in the size of the graph and the satellite is polynomial - exponentially easier than games with observation-based partial visibility. We also analyze the complexity of the problem for richer types of satellites.

Cite as

Orna Kupferman and Noam Shenwald. Perspective Games with Notifications. In 40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 182, pp. 51:1-51:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{kupferman_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.51,
  author =	{Kupferman, Orna and Shenwald, Noam},
  title =	{{Perspective Games with Notifications}},
  booktitle =	{40th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2020)},
  pages =	{51:1--51:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-174-0},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{182},
  editor =	{Saxena, Nitin and Simon, Sunil},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.51},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-132928},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2020.51},
  annote =	{Keywords: Games, Incomplete Information, Automata}
}
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