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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 47, 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)

We prove that for every positive integer r and for every graph class G of bounded expansion, the r-DOMINATING SET problem admits a linear kernel on graphs from G. Moreover, in the more general case when G is only assumed to be nowhere dense, we give an almost linear kernel on G for the classic DOMINATING SET problem, i.e., for the case r=1. These results generalize a line of previous research on finding linear kernels for DOMINATING SET and r-DOMINATING SET (Alber et al., JACM 2004, Bodlaender et al., FOCS 2009, Fomin et al., SODA 2010, Fomin et al., SODA 2012, Fomin et al., STACS 2013). However, the approach taken in this work, which is based on the theory of sparse graphs, is radically different and conceptually much simpler than the previous approaches.
We complement our findings by showing that for the closely related CONNECTED DOMINATING SET problem, the existence of such kernelization algorithms is unlikely, even though the problem is known to admit a linear kernel on H-topological-minor-free graphs (Fomin et al., STACS 2013). Also, we prove that for any somewhere dense class G, there is some r for which r-DOMINATING SET is W[2]-hard on G. Thus, our results fall short of proving a sharp dichotomy for the parameterized complexity of r-DOMINATING SET on subgraph-monotone graph classes: we conjecture that the border of tractability lies exactly between nowhere dense and somewhere dense graph classes.

Pål Grønås Drange, Markus Dregi, Fedor V. Fomin, Stephan Kreutzer, Daniel Lokshtanov, Marcin Pilipczuk, Michal Pilipczuk, Felix Reidl, Fernando Sánchez Villaamil, Saket Saurabh, Sebastian Siebertz, and Somnath Sikdar. Kernelization and Sparseness: the Case of Dominating Set. In 33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 47, pp. 31:1-31:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{drange_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2016.31, author = {Drange, P\r{a}l Gr{\o}n\r{a}s and Dregi, Markus and Fomin, Fedor V. and Kreutzer, Stephan and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Pilipczuk, Marcin and Pilipczuk, Michal and Reidl, Felix and S\'{a}nchez Villaamil, Fernando and Saurabh, Saket and Siebertz, Sebastian and Sikdar, Somnath}, title = {{Kernelization and Sparseness: the Case of Dominating Set}}, booktitle = {33rd Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2016)}, pages = {31:1--31:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-001-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {47}, editor = {Ollinger, Nicolas and Vollmer, Heribert}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-57327}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2016.31}, annote = {Keywords: kernelization, dominating set, bounded expansion, nowhere dense} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 43, 10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015)

We study two clustering problems, Starforest Editing, the problem of adding and deleting edges to obtain a disjoint union of stars, and the generalization Bicluster Editing. We show that, in addition to being NP-hard, none of the problems can be solved in subexponential time unless the exponential time hypothesis fails.
Misra, Panolan, and Saurabh (MFCS 2013) argue that introducing a bound on the number of connected components in the solution should not make the problem easier: In particular, they argue that the subexponential time algorithm for editing to a fixed number of clusters (p-Cluster Editing) by Fomin et al. (J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 80(7) 2014) is an exception rather than the rule. Here, p is a secondary parameter, bounding the number of components in the solution.
However, upon bounding the number of stars or bicliques in the solution, we obtain algorithms which run in time O(2^{3*sqrt(pk)} + n + m) for p-Starforest Editing and O(2^{O(p * sqrt(k) * log(pk))} + n + m) for p-Bicluster Editing. We obtain a similar result for the more general case of t-Partite p-Cluster Editing. This is subexponential in k for a fixed number of clusters, since p is then considered a constant.
Our results even out the number of multivariate subexponential time algorithms and give reasons to believe that this area warrants further study.

Pål Grønås Drange, Felix Reidl, Fernando Sánchez Villaamil, and Somnath Sikdar. Fast Biclustering by Dual Parameterization. In 10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 43, pp. 402-413, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{drange_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.402, author = {Drange, P\r{a}l Gr{\o}n\r{a}s and Reidl, Felix and S\'{a}nchez Villaamil, Fernando and Sikdar, Somnath}, title = {{Fast Biclustering by Dual Parameterization}}, booktitle = {10th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2015)}, pages = {402--413}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-92-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {43}, editor = {Husfeldt, Thore and Kanj, Iyad}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.402}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-56004}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2015.402}, annote = {Keywords: graph editing, subexponential algorithms, parameterized complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 14, 29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012)

One of the most important algorithmic meta-theorems is a famous result
by Courcelle, which states that any graph problem definable in monadic second-order logic with edge-set quantifications (MSO2) is decidable in linear time on any class of graphs of bounded tree-width. In the parlance of parameterized complexity, this means that MSO2 model-checking is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to the tree-width as parameter. Recently, Kreutzer and Tazari proved a corresponding complexity lower-bound---that MSO2 model-checking is not even in XP wrt the formula size as parameter for graph classes that are subgraph-closed and whose tree-width is poly-logarithmically unbounded. Of course, this is not an unconditional result but holds modulo a certain complexity-theoretic assumption, namely, the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH).
In this paper we present a closely related result. We show that
even MSO1 model-checking with a fixed set of vertex labels,
but without edge-set quantifications, is not in XP wrt the formula
size as parameter for graph classes which are subgraph-closed and
whose tree-width is poly-logarithmically unbounded unless the non-uniform ETH fails. In comparison to Kreutzer and Tazari, (1) we use a stronger prerequisite, namely non-uniform instead of uniform ETH, to avoid the effectiveness assumption and the construction of certain obstructions used in their proofs; and (2) we assume a different set of problems to be efficiently decidable, namely MSO1-definable properties on vertex labeled graphs instead of MSO2-definable properties on unlabeled graphs.
Our result has an interesting consequence in the realm of digraph width measures: Strengthening a recent result, we show that no
subdigraph-monotone measure can be algorithmically useful, unless it is within a poly-logarithmic factor of (undirected) tree-width.

Robert Ganian, Petr Hlineny, Alexander Langer, Jan Obdržálek, Peter Rossmanith, and Somnath Sikdar. Lower Bounds on the Complexity of MSO_1 Model-Checking. In 29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 14, pp. 326-337, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{ganian_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2012.326, author = {Ganian, Robert and Hlineny, Petr and Langer, Alexander and Obdr\v{z}\'{a}lek, Jan and Rossmanith, Peter and Sikdar, Somnath}, title = {{Lower Bounds on the Complexity of MSO\underline1 Model-Checking}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012)}, pages = {326--337}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-35-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2012}, volume = {14}, editor = {D\"{u}rr, Christoph and Wilke, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2012.326}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-34185}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2012.326}, annote = {Keywords: Monadic Second-Order Logic, Treewidth, Lower Bounds, Exponential Time Hypothesis, Parameterized Complexity} }

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