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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 311, 35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024)

We study the reachability problem for one-counter automata in which transitions can carry disequality tests. A disequality test is a guard that prohibits a specified counter value. This reachability problem has been known to be NP-hard and in PSPACE, and characterising its computational complexity has been left as a challenging open question by Almagor, Cohen, Pérez, Shirmohammadi, and Worrell (2020). We reduce the complexity gap, placing the problem into the second level of the polynomial hierarchy, namely into the class coNP^NP. In the presence of both equality and disequality tests, our upper bound is at the third level, P^NP^NP.
To prove this result, we show that non-reachability can be witnessed by a pair of invariants (forward and backward). These invariants are almost inductive. They aim to over-approximate only a "core" of the reachability set instead of the entire set. The invariants are also leaky: it is possible to escape the set. We complement this with separate checks as the leaks can only occur in a controlled way.

Dmitry Chistikov, Jérôme Leroux, Henry Sinclair-Banks, and Nicolas Waldburger. Invariants for One-Counter Automata with Disequality Tests. In 35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 311, pp. 17:1-17:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{chistikov_et_al:LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.17, author = {Chistikov, Dmitry and Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Sinclair-Banks, Henry and Waldburger, Nicolas}, title = {{Invariants for One-Counter Automata with Disequality Tests}}, booktitle = {35th International Conference on Concurrency Theory (CONCUR 2024)}, pages = {17:1--17:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-339-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {311}, editor = {Majumdar, Rupak and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-207898}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CONCUR.2024.17}, annote = {Keywords: Inductive invariant, Vector addition system, One-counter automaton} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 284, 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)

In this paper we propose two new subclasses of Petri nets with resets, for which the reachability and coverability problems become tractable. Namely, we add an acyclicity condition that only applies to the consumptions and productions, not the resets. The first class is acyclic Petri nets with resets, and we show that coverability is PSPACE-complete for them. This contrasts the known Ackermann-hardness for coverability in (not necessarily acyclic) Petri nets with resets. We prove that the reachability problem remains undecidable for acyclic Petri nets with resets. The second class concerns workflow nets, a practically motivated and natural subclass of Petri nets. Here, we show that both coverability and reachability in acyclic workflow nets with resets are PSPACE-complete. Without the acyclicity condition, reachability and coverability in workflow nets with resets are known to be equally hard as for Petri nets with resets, that being Ackermann-hard and undecidable, respectively.

Dmitry Chistikov, Wojciech Czerwiński, Piotr Hofman, Filip Mazowiecki, and Henry Sinclair-Banks. Acyclic Petri and Workflow Nets with Resets. In 43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 284, pp. 16:1-16:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chistikov_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.16, author = {Chistikov, Dmitry and Czerwi\'{n}ski, Wojciech and Hofman, Piotr and Mazowiecki, Filip and Sinclair-Banks, Henry}, title = {{Acyclic Petri and Workflow Nets with Resets}}, booktitle = {43rd IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2023)}, pages = {16:1--16:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-304-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {284}, editor = {Bouyer, Patricia and Srinivasan, Srikanth}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193892}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2023.16}, annote = {Keywords: Petri nets, Workflow Nets, Resets, Acyclic, Reachability, Coverability} }

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Track B: Automata, Logic, Semantics, and Theory of Programming

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Seminal results establish that the coverability problem for Vector Addition Systems with States (VASS) is in EXPSPACE (Rackoff, '78) and is EXPSPACE-hard already under unary encodings (Lipton, '76). More precisely, Rosier and Yen later utilise Rackoff’s bounding technique to show that if coverability holds then there is a run of length at most n^{2^𝒪(d log d)}, where d is the dimension and n is the size of the given unary VASS. Earlier, Lipton showed that there exist instances of coverability in d-dimensional unary VASS that are only witnessed by runs of length at least n^{2^Ω(d)}. Our first result closes this gap. We improve the upper bound by removing the twice-exponentiated log(d) factor, thus matching Lipton’s lower bound. This closes the corresponding gap for the exact space required to decide coverability. This also yields a deterministic n^{2^𝒪(d)}-time algorithm for coverability. Our second result is a matching lower bound, that there does not exist a deterministic n^{2^o(d)}-time algorithm, conditioned upon the Exponential Time Hypothesis.
When analysing coverability, a standard proof technique is to consider VASS with bounded counters. Bounded VASS make for an interesting and popular model due to strong connections with timed automata. Withal, we study a natural setting where the counter bound is linear in the size of the VASS. Here the trivial exhaustive search algorithm runs in 𝒪(n^{d+1})-time. We give evidence to this being near-optimal. We prove that in dimension one this trivial algorithm is conditionally optimal, by showing that n^{2-o(1)}-time is required under the k-cycle hypothesis. In general fixed dimension d, we show that n^{d-2-o(1)}-time is required under the 3-uniform hyperclique hypothesis.

Marvin Künnemann, Filip Mazowiecki, Lia Schütze, Henry Sinclair-Banks, and Karol Węgrzycki. Coverability in VASS Revisited: Improving Rackoff’s Bound to Obtain Conditional Optimality. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 131:1-131:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{kunnemann_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.131, author = {K\"{u}nnemann, Marvin and Mazowiecki, Filip and Sch\"{u}tze, Lia and Sinclair-Banks, Henry and W\k{e}grzycki, Karol}, title = {{Coverability in VASS Revisited: Improving Rackoff’s Bound to Obtain Conditional Optimality}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {131:1--131:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.131}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181834}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.131}, annote = {Keywords: Vector Addition System, Coverability, Reachability, Fine-Grained Complexity, Exponential Time Hypothesis, k-Cycle Hypothesis, Hyperclique Hypothesis} }

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