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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Submodular maximization has been a central topic in theoretical computer science and combinatorial optimization over the last decades. Plenty of well-performed approximation algorithms have been designed for the problem over a variety of constraints. In this paper, we consider the submodular multiple knapsack problem (SMKP). In SMKP, the profits of each subset of elements are specified by a monotone submodular function. The goal is to find a feasible packing of elements over multiple bins (knapsacks) to maximize the profit. Recently, Fairstein et al. [ESA20] proposed a nearly optimal (1-e^{-1}-ε)-approximation algorithm for SMKP. Their algorithm is obtained by combining configuration LP, a grouping technique for bin packing, and the continuous greedy algorithm for submodular maximization. As a result, the algorithm is somewhat sophisticated and inherently randomized. In this paper, we present an arguably simple deterministic combinatorial algorithm for SMKP, which achieves a (1-e^{-1}-ε)-approximation ratio. Our algorithm is based on very different ideas compared with Fairstein et al. [ESA20].

Xiaoming Sun, Jialin Zhang, and Zhijie Zhang. Simple Deterministic Approximation for Submodular Multiple Knapsack Problem. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 98:1-98:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.98, author = {Sun, Xiaoming and Zhang, Jialin and Zhang, Zhijie}, title = {{Simple Deterministic Approximation for Submodular Multiple Knapsack Problem}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {98:1--98:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.98}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187517}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.98}, annote = {Keywords: Submodular maximization, knapsack problem, deterministic algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

Probabilistic graphical models, such as Markov random fields (MRFs), are useful for describing high-dimensional distributions in terms of local dependence structures. The {probabilistic inference} is a fundamental problem related to graphical models, and sampling is a main approach for the problem. In this paper, we study probabilistic inference problems when the graphical model itself is changing dynamically with time. Such dynamic inference problems arise naturally in today’s application, e.g. multivariate time-series data analysis and practical learning procedures.
We give a dynamic algorithm for sampling-based probabilistic inferences in MRFs, where each dynamic update can change the underlying graph and all parameters of the MRF simultaneously, as long as the total amount of changes is bounded. More precisely, suppose that the MRF has n variables and polylogarithmic-bounded maximum degree, and N(n) independent samples are sufficient for the inference for a polynomial function N(⋅). Our algorithm dynamically maintains an answer to the inference problem using Õ(n N(n)) space cost, and Õ(N(n) + n) incremental time cost upon each update to the MRF, as long as the Dobrushin-Shlosman condition is satisfied by the MRFs. This well-known condition has long been used for guaranteeing the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling in the traditional static setting. Compared to the static case, which requires Ω(n N(n)) time cost for redrawing all N(n) samples whenever the MRF changes, our dynamic algorithm gives a 𝛺^~(min{n, N(n)})-factor speedup. Our approach relies on a novel dynamic sampling technique, which transforms local Markov chains (a.k.a. single-site dynamics) to dynamic sampling algorithms, and an "algorithmic Lipschitz" condition that we establish for sampling from graphical models, namely, when the MRF changes by a small difference, samples can be modified to reflect the new distribution, with cost proportional to the difference on MRF.

Weiming Feng, Kun He, Xiaoming Sun, and Yitong Yin. Dynamic Inference in Probabilistic Graphical Models. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 25:1-25:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{feng_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.25, author = {Feng, Weiming and He, Kun and Sun, Xiaoming and Yin, Yitong}, title = {{Dynamic Inference in Probabilistic Graphical Models}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {25:1--25:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135643}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.25}, annote = {Keywords: Dynamic inference, probabilistic graphical model, Gibbs sampling, Markov random filed} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

Polynomial representations of Boolean functions over various rings such as ℤ and ℤ_m have been studied since Minsky and Papert (1969). From then on, they have been employed in a large variety of areas including communication complexity, circuit complexity, learning theory, coding theory and so on. For any integer m ≥ 2, each Boolean function has a unique multilinear polynomial representation over ring ℤ_m. The degree of such polynomial is called modulo-m degree, denoted as deg_m(⋅).
In this paper, we investigate the lower bound of modulo-m degree of Boolean functions. When m = p^k (k ≥ 1) for some prime p, we give a tight lower bound deg_m(f) ≥ k(p-1) for any non-degenerate function f:{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1}, provided that n is sufficient large. When m contains two different prime factors p and q, we give a nearly optimal lower bound for any symmetric function f:{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1} that deg_m(f) ≥ n/{2+1/(p-1)+1/(q-1)}.

Xiaoming Sun, Yuan Sun, Jiaheng Wang, Kewen Wu, Zhiyu Xia, and Yufan Zheng. On the Degree of Boolean Functions as Polynomials over ℤ_m. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 100:1-100:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100, author = {Sun, Xiaoming and Sun, Yuan and Wang, Jiaheng and Wu, Kewen and Xia, Zhiyu and Zheng, Yufan}, title = {{On the Degree of Boolean Functions as Polynomials over \mathbb{Z}\underlinem}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {100:1--100:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125070}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean function, polynomial, modular degree, Ramsey theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

In the 1970’s, Lovász built a bridge between graphs and alternating matrix spaces, in the context of perfect matchings (FCT 1979). A similar connection between bipartite graphs and matrix spaces plays a key role in the recent resolutions of the non-commutative rank problem (Garg-Gurvits-Oliveira-Wigderson, FOCS 2016; Ivanyos-Qiao-Subrahmanyam, ITCS 2017). In this paper, we lay the foundation for another bridge between graphs and alternating matrix spaces, in the context of independent sets and vertex colorings. The corresponding structures in alternating matrix spaces are isotropic spaces and isotropic decompositions, both useful structures in group theory and manifold theory.
We first show that the maximum independent set problem and the vertex c-coloring problem reduce to the maximum isotropic space problem and the isotropic c-decomposition problem, respectively. Next, we show that several topics and results about independent sets and vertex colorings have natural correspondences for isotropic spaces and decompositions. These include algorithmic problems, such as the maximum independent set problem for bipartite graphs, and exact exponential-time algorithms for the chromatic number, as well as mathematical questions, such as the number of maximal independent sets, and the relation between the maximum degree and the chromatic number. These connections lead to new interactions between graph theory and algebra. Some results have concrete applications to group theory and manifold theory, and we initiate a variant of these structures in the context of quantum information theory. Finally, we propose several open questions for further exploration.
(Dedicated to the memory of Ker-I Ko)

Xiaohui Bei, Shiteng Chen, Ji Guan, Youming Qiao, and Xiaoming Sun. From Independent Sets and Vertex Colorings to Isotropic Spaces and Isotropic Decompositions: Another Bridge Between Graphs and Alternating Matrix Spaces. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 8:1-8:48, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bei_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.8, author = {Bei, Xiaohui and Chen, Shiteng and Guan, Ji and Qiao, Youming and Sun, Xiaoming}, title = {{From Independent Sets and Vertex Colorings to Isotropic Spaces and Isotropic Decompositions: Another Bridge Between Graphs and Alternating Matrix Spaces}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {8:1--8:48}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-116932}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.8}, annote = {Keywords: independent set, vertex coloring, graphs, matrix spaces, isotropic subspace} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We consider algorithms with access to an unknown matrix M in F^{n x d} via matrix-vector products, namely, the algorithm chooses vectors v^1, ..., v^q, and observes Mv^1, ..., Mv^q. Here the v^i can be randomized as well as chosen adaptively as a function of Mv^1, ..., Mv^{i-1}. Motivated by applications of sketching in distributed computation, linear algebra, and streaming models, as well as connections to areas such as communication complexity and property testing, we initiate the study of the number q of queries needed to solve various fundamental problems. We study problems in three broad categories, including linear algebra, statistics problems, and graph problems. For example, we consider the number of queries required to approximate the rank, trace, maximum eigenvalue, and norms of a matrix M; to compute the AND/OR/Parity of each column or row of M, to decide whether there are identical columns or rows in M or whether M is symmetric, diagonal, or unitary; or to compute whether a graph defined by M is connected or triangle-free. We also show separations for algorithms that are allowed to obtain matrix-vector products only by querying vectors on the right, versus algorithms that can query vectors on both the left and the right. We also show separations depending on the underlying field the matrix-vector product occurs in. For graph problems, we show separations depending on the form of the matrix (bipartite adjacency versus signed edge-vertex incidence matrix) to represent the graph.
Surprisingly, this fundamental model does not appear to have been studied on its own, and we believe a thorough investigation of problems in this model would be beneficial to a number of different application areas.

Xiaoming Sun, David P. Woodruff, Guang Yang, and Jialin Zhang. Querying a Matrix Through Matrix-Vector Products. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 94:1-94:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.94, author = {Sun, Xiaoming and Woodruff, David P. and Yang, Guang and Zhang, Jialin}, title = {{Querying a Matrix Through Matrix-Vector Products}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {94:1--94:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.94}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106709}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.94}, annote = {Keywords: Communication complexity, linear algebra, sketching} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

String matching is one of the most fundamental problems in computer science. A natural problem is to determine the number of characters that need to be queried (i.e. the decision tree complexity) in a string in order to decide whether this string contains a certain pattern. Rivest showed that for every pattern p, in the worst case any deterministic algorithm needs to query at least n-|p|+1 characters, where n is the length of the string and |p| is the length of the pattern. He further conjectured that this bound is tight. By using the adversary method, Tuza disproved this conjecture and showed that more than one half of binary patterns are evasive, i.e. any algorithm needs to query all the characters (see Section 1.1 for more details).
In this paper, we give a query algorithm which settles the decision tree complexity of string matching except for a negligible fraction of patterns. Our algorithm shows that Tuza's criteria of evasive patterns are almost complete. Using the algebraic approach of Rivest and Vuillemin, we also give a new sufficient condition for the evasiveness of patterns, which is beyond Tuza's criteria. In addition, our result reveals an interesting connection to Skolem's Problem in mathematics.

Xiaoyu He, Neng Huang, and Xiaoming Sun. On the Decision Tree Complexity of String Matching. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 45:1-45:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{he_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.45, author = {He, Xiaoyu and Huang, Neng and Sun, Xiaoming}, title = {{On the Decision Tree Complexity of String Matching}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {45:1--45:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-95082}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.45}, annote = {Keywords: String Matching, Decision Tree Complexity, Boolean Function, Algebraic Method} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 66, 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)

In this paper we investigate the sensitivity complexity of hypergraph properties. We present a k-uniform hypergraph property with sensitivity complexity O(n^{ceil(k/3)}) for any k >= 3, where n is the number of vertices. Moreover, we can do better when k = 1 (mod 3) by presenting a k-uniform hypergraph property with sensitivity O(n^{ceil(k/3)-1/2}). This result disproves a conjecture of Babai, which conjectures that the sensitivity complexity of k-uniform hypergraph properties is at least Omega(n^{k/2}). We also investigate the sensitivity complexity of other weakly symmetric functions and show that for many classes of transitive-invariant Boolean functions the minimum achievable sensitivity complexity can be O(N^{1/3}), where N is the number of variables. Finally, we give a lower bound for sensitivity of k-uniform hypergraph properties, which implies the sensitivity conjecture of k-uniform hypergraph properties for any constant k.

Qian Li and Xiaoming Sun. On the Sensitivity Complexity of k-Uniform Hypergraph Properties. In 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 66, pp. 51:1-51:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{li_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2017.51, author = {Li, Qian and Sun, Xiaoming}, title = {{On the Sensitivity Complexity of k-Uniform Hypergraph Properties}}, booktitle = {34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)}, pages = {51:1--51:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-028-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {66}, editor = {Vollmer, Heribert and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69825}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.51}, annote = {Keywords: Sensitivity Complexity, k-uniform Hypergraph Properties, Boolean Function, Turan's question} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 64, 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)

The problem of merging sorted lists in the least number of pairwise comparisons has been solved completely only for a few special cases. Graham and Karp [TAOCP, 1999] independently discovered that the tape merge algorithm is optimal in the worst case when the two lists have the same size. Stockmeyer and Yao [SICOMP, 1980], Murphy and Paull [Inform. Control, 1979], and Christen [1978] independently showed when the lists to be merged are of size m and n satisfying m leq n leq floor(3/2 m) + 1, the tape merge algorithm is optimal in the worst case. This paper extends this result by showing that the tape merge algorithm is optimal in the worst case whenever the size of one list is no larger than 1.52 times the size of the other. The main tool we used to prove lower bounds is Knuth’s adversary methods [TAOCP, 1999]. In addition, we show that the lower bound cannot be improved to 1.8 via Knuth's adversary methods. We also develop a new inequality about Knuth's adversary methods, which might be interesting in its own right. Moreover, we design a simple procedure to achieve constant improvement of the upper bounds for 2m - 2 leq n leq 3m.

Qian Li, Xiaoming Sun, and Jialin Zhang. On the Optimality of Tape Merge of Two Lists with Similar Size. In 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 64, pp. 51:1-51:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{li_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.51, author = {Li, Qian and Sun, Xiaoming and Zhang, Jialin}, title = {{On the Optimality of Tape Merge of Two Lists with Similar Size}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)}, pages = {51:1--51:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-026-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {64}, editor = {Hong, Seok-Hee}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68219}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.51}, annote = {Keywords: comparison-based sorting, tape merge, optimal sort, adversary method} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 40, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)

Despite the large amount of work on solving graph problems in the data stream model, there do not exist tight space bounds for almost any of them, even in a stream with only edge insertions. For example, for testing connectivity, the upper bound is O(n * log(n)) bits, while the lower bound is only Omega(n) bits. We remedy this situation by providing the first tight Omega(n * log(n)) space lower bounds for randomized algorithms which succeed with constant probability in a stream of edge insertions for a number of graph problems. Our lower bounds apply to testing bipartiteness, connectivity, cycle-freeness, whether a graph is Eulerian, planarity, H-minor freeness, finding a minimum spanning tree of a connected graph, and testing if the diameter of a sparse graph is constant. We also give the first Omega(n * k * log(n)) space lower bounds for deterministic algorithms for k-edge connectivity and k-vertex connectivity; these are optimal in light of known deterministic upper bounds (for k-vertex connectivity we also need to allow edge duplications, which known upper bounds allow). Finally, we give an Omega(n * log^2(n)) lower bound for randomized algorithms approximating the minimum cut up to a constant factor with constant probability in a graph with integer weights between 1 and n, presented as a stream of insertions and deletions to its edges. This lower bound also holds for cut sparsifiers, and gives the first separation of maintaining a sparsifier in the data stream model versus the offline model.

Xiaoming Sun and David P. Woodruff. Tight Bounds for Graph Problems in Insertion Streams. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 40, pp. 435-448, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.435, author = {Sun, Xiaoming and Woodruff, David P.}, title = {{Tight Bounds for Graph Problems in Insertion Streams}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2015)}, pages = {435--448}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-89-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {40}, editor = {Garg, Naveen and Jansen, Klaus and Rao, Anup and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.435}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-53160}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2015.435}, annote = {Keywords: communication complexity, data streams, graphs, space complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 14, 29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012)

Finding the singularity of a matrix is a basic problem in linear algebra. Chu and Schnitger [SC95] first considered this problem in the communication complexity model, in which Alice holds the first half of the matrix and Bob holds the other half. They proved that the deterministic communication complexity is Omega(n^2 log p) for an n by n matrix over the finite field F_p. Then, Clarkson and Woodruff [CW09] introduced the singularity problem to the streaming model. They proposed a randomized one pass streaming algorithm that uses O(k^2 log n) space to decide if the rank of a matrix is k, and proved an Omega(k^2) lower bound for randomized one-way protocols in the communication complexity model.
We prove that the randomized/quantum communication complexity of the singularity problem over F_p is Omega(n^2 log p), which implies the same space lower bound for randomized streaming algorithms, even for a constant number of passes. The proof uses the framework by Lee and Shraibman [LS09], but we choose Fourier coefficients as the witness for the dual approximate norm of the communication matrix. Moreover, we use Fourier analysis to show the same randomized/quantum lower bound when deciding if the determinant of a non-singular matrix is a or b for non-zero a and b.

Xiaoming Sun and Chengu Wang. Randomized Communication Complexity for Linear Algebra Problems over Finite Fields. In 29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 14, pp. 477-488, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2012)

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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2012.477, author = {Sun, Xiaoming and Wang, Chengu}, title = {{Randomized Communication Complexity for Linear Algebra Problems over Finite Fields}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2012)}, pages = {477--488}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-35-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2012}, volume = {14}, editor = {D\"{u}rr, Christoph and Wilke, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2012.477}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-34385}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2012.477}, annote = {Keywords: communication complexity, streaming, matrix, singularity, determinant} }

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