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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Ranking and Balance are arguably the two most important algorithms in the online matching literature. They achieve the same optimal competitive ratio of 1-1/e for the integral version and fractional version of online bipartite matching by Karp, Vazirani, and Vazirani (STOC 1990) respectively. The two algorithms have been generalized to weighted online bipartite matching problems, including vertex-weighted online bipartite matching and AdWords, by utilizing a perturbation function. The canonical choice of the perturbation function is f(x) = 1-e^{x-1} as it leads to the optimal competitive ratio of 1-1/e in both settings.
We advance the understanding of the weighted generalizations of Ranking and Balance in this paper, with a focus on studying the effect of different perturbation functions. First, we prove that the canonical perturbation function is the unique optimal perturbation function for vertex-weighted online bipartite matching. In stark contrast, all perturbation functions achieve the optimal competitive ratio of 1-1/e in the unweighted setting. Second, we prove that the generalization of Ranking to AdWords with unknown budgets using the canonical perturbation function is at most 0.624 competitive, refuting a conjecture of Vazirani (2021). More generally, as an application of the first result, we prove that no perturbation function leads to the prominent competitive ratio of 1-1/e by establishing an upper bound of 1-1/e-0.0003. Finally, we propose the online budget-additive welfare maximization problem that is intermediate between AdWords and AdWords with unknown budgets, and we design an optimal 1-1/e competitive algorithm by generalizing Balance.

Jingxun Liang, Zhihao Gavin Tang, Yixuan Even Xu, Yuhao Zhang, and Renfei Zhou. On the Perturbation Function of Ranking and Balance for Weighted Online Bipartite Matching. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 80:1-80:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{liang_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.80, author = {Liang, Jingxun and Tang, Zhihao Gavin and Xu, Yixuan Even and Zhang, Yuhao and Zhou, Renfei}, title = {{On the Perturbation Function of Ranking and Balance for Weighted Online Bipartite Matching}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {80:1--80:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.80}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187334}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.80}, annote = {Keywords: Online Matching, AdWords, Ranking, Water-Filling} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

With a wide range of applications, stochastic matching problems have been studied in different models, including prophet inequality, Query-Commit, and Price-of-Information. While there have been recent breakthroughs in all these settings for bipartite graphs, few non-trivial results are known for general graphs.
In this paper, we study the random order vertex arrival contention resolution scheme for matching in general graphs, which is inspired by the recent work of Ezra et al. (EC 2020). We design an 8/15-selectable batched RCRS for matching and apply it to achieve 8/15-competitive/approximate algorithms for all the three models. Our results are the first non-trivial results for random order prophet matching and Price-of-Information matching in general graphs. For the Query-Commit model, our result substantially improves upon the 0.501 approximation ratio by Tang et al. (STOC 2020). We also show that no batched RCRS for matching can be better than 1/2+1/(2e²) ≈ 0.567-selectable.

Hu Fu, Zhihao Gavin Tang, Hongxun Wu, Jinzhao Wu, and Qianfan Zhang. Random Order Vertex Arrival Contention Resolution Schemes for Matching, with Applications. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 68:1-68:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{fu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.68, author = {Fu, Hu and Tang, Zhihao Gavin and Wu, Hongxun and Wu, Jinzhao and Zhang, Qianfan}, title = {{Random Order Vertex Arrival Contention Resolution Schemes for Matching, with Applications}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {68:1--68:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.68}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141376}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.68}, annote = {Keywords: Matching, Contention Resolution Scheme, Price of Information, Query-Commit} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

Online bipartite matching with edge arrivals remained a major open question for a long time until a recent negative result by Gamlath et al., who showed that no online policy is better than the straightforward greedy algorithm, i.e., no online algorithm has a worst-case competitive ratio better than 0.5. In this work, we consider the bipartite matching problem with edge arrivals in a natural stochastic framework, i.e., Bayesian setting where each edge of the graph is independently realized according to a known probability distribution.
We focus on a natural class of prune & greedy online policies motivated by practical considerations from a multitude of online matching platforms. Any prune & greedy algorithm consists of two stages: first, it decreases the probabilities of some edges in the stochastic instance and then runs greedy algorithm on the pruned graph. We propose prune & greedy algorithms that are 0.552-competitive on the instances that can be pruned to a 2-regular stochastic bipartite graph, and 0.503-competitive on arbitrary stochastic bipartite graphs. The algorithms and our analysis significantly deviate from the prior work. We first obtain analytically manageable lower bound on the size of the matching, which leads to a non-linear optimization problem. We further reduce this problem to a continuous optimization with a constant number of parameters that can be solved using standard software tools.

Nick Gravin, Zhihao Gavin Tang, and Kangning Wang. Online Stochastic Matching with Edge Arrivals. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 74:1-74:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{gravin_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.74, author = {Gravin, Nick and Tang, Zhihao Gavin and Wang, Kangning}, title = {{Online Stochastic Matching with Edge Arrivals}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {74:1--74:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.74}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141438}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.74}, annote = {Keywords: online matching, graph algorithms, prophet inequality} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

We consider the online makespan minimization problem on identical machines. Chen and Vestjens (ORL 1997) show that the largest processing time first (LPT) algorithm is 1.5-competitive. For the special case of two machines, Noga and Seiden (TCS 2001) introduce the SLEEPY algorithm that achieves a competitive ratio of (5 - sqrt{5})/2 ~~ 1.382, matching the lower bound by Chen and Vestjens (ORL 1997). Furthermore, Noga and Seiden note that in many applications one can kill a job and restart it later, and they leave an open problem whether algorithms with restart can obtain better competitive ratios.
We resolve this long-standing open problem on the positive end. Our algorithm has a natural rule for killing a processing job: a newly-arrived job replaces the smallest processing job if 1) the new job is larger than other pending jobs, 2) the new job is much larger than the processing one, and 3) the processed portion is small relative to the size of the new job. With appropriate choice of parameters, we show that our algorithm improves the 1.5 competitive ratio for the general case, and the 1.382 competitive ratio for the two-machine case.

Zhiyi Huang, Ning Kang, Zhihao Gavin Tang, Xiaowei Wu, and Yuhao Zhang. Online Makespan Minimization: The Power of Restart. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 14:1-14:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{huang_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.14, author = {Huang, Zhiyi and Kang, Ning and Tang, Zhihao Gavin and Wu, Xiaowei and Zhang, Yuhao}, title = {{Online Makespan Minimization: The Power of Restart}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {14:1--14:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94182}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.14}, annote = {Keywords: Online Scheduling, Makespan Minimization, Identical Machines} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

We introduce a weighted version of the ranking algorithm by Karp et al. (STOC 1990), and prove a competitive ratio of 0.6534 for the vertex-weighted online bipartite matching problem when online vertices arrive in random order. Our result shows that random arrivals help beating the 1-1/e barrier even in the vertex-weighted case. We build on the randomized primal-dual framework by Devanur et al. (SODA 2013) and design a two dimensional gain sharing function, which depends not only on the rank of the offline vertex, but also on the arrival time of the online vertex. To our knowledge, this is the first competitive ratio strictly larger than 1-1/e for an online bipartite matching problem achieved under the randomized primal-dual framework. Our algorithm has a natural interpretation that offline vertices offer a larger portion of their weights to the online vertices as time goes by, and each online vertex matches the neighbor with the highest offer at its arrival.

Zhiyi Huang, Zhihao Gavin Tang, Xiaowei Wu, and Yuhao Zhang. Online Vertex-Weighted Bipartite Matching: Beating 1-1/e with Random Arrivals. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 79:1-79:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{huang_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.79, author = {Huang, Zhiyi and Tang, Zhihao Gavin and Wu, Xiaowei and Zhang, Yuhao}, title = {{Online Vertex-Weighted Bipartite Matching: Beating 1-1/e with Random Arrivals}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {79:1--79:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.79}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90830}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.79}, annote = {Keywords: Vertex Weighted, Online Bipartite Matching, Randomized Primal-Dual} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 87, 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)

We consider the online vector packing problem in which we have a d dimensional knapsack and items u with weight vectors w_u in R_+^d arrive online in an arbitrary order. Upon the arrival of an item, the algorithm must decide immediately whether to discard or accept the item into the knapsack. When item u is accepted, w_u(i) units of capacity on dimension i will be taken up, for each i in [d]. To satisfy the knapsack constraint, an accepted item can be later disposed of with no cost, but discarded or disposed of items cannot be recovered. The objective is to maximize the utility of the accepted items S at the end of the algorithm, which is given by f(S) for some non-negative monotone submodular function f.
For any small constant epsilon > 0, we consider the special case that the weight of an item on every dimension is at most a (1- epsilon) fraction of the total capacity, and give a polynomial-time deterministic O(k / epsilon^2)-competitive algorithm for the problem, where k is the (column) sparsity of the weight vectors. We also show several (almost) tight hardness results even when the algorithm is computationally unbounded. We first show that under the epsilon-slack assumption, no deterministic algorithm can obtain any o(k) competitive ratio, and no randomized algorithm can obtain any o(k / log k) competitive ratio. We then show that for the general case (when epsilon = 0), no randomized algorithm can obtain any o(k) competitive ratio.
In contrast to the (1+delta) competitive ratio achieved in Kesselheim et al. [STOC 2014] for the problem with random arrival order of items and under large capacity assumption, we show that in the arbitrary arrival order case, even when |w_u|_infinity is arbitrarily small for all items u, it is impossible to achieve any o(log k / log log k) competitive ratio.

T.-H. Hubert Chan, Shaofeng H.-C. Jiang, Zhihao Gavin Tang, and Xiaowei Wu. Online Submodular Maximization Problem with Vector Packing Constraint. In 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 87, pp. 24:1-24:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{chan_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2017.24, author = {Chan, T.-H. Hubert and Jiang, Shaofeng H.-C. and Tang, Zhihao Gavin and Wu, Xiaowei}, title = {{Online Submodular Maximization Problem with Vector Packing Constraint}}, booktitle = {25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)}, pages = {24:1--24:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-049-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {87}, editor = {Pruhs, Kirk and Sohler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78190}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.24}, annote = {Keywords: Submodular Maximization, Free-disposal, Vector Packing} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 64, 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)

We study the max-min fair allocation problem in which a set of m indivisible items are to be distributed among n agents such that the minimum utility among all agents is maximized. In the restricted setting, the utility of each item j on agent i is either 0 or some non-negative weight w_j. For this setting, Asadpour et al. [TALG, 2012] showed that a certain configuration-LP can be used to estimate the optimal value within a factor of 4 + delta, for any delta > 0, which was recently extended by Annamalai et al. [SODA 2015] to give a polynomial-time 13-approximation algorithm for the problem. For hardness results, Bezáková and Dani [SIGecom Exch., 2005] showed that it is NP-hard to approximate the problem within any ratio smaller than 2.
In this paper we consider the (1, epsilon)-restricted max-min fair allocation problem, in which for some parameter epsilon in (0, 1), each item j is either heavy (w_j = 1) or light (w_j = epsilon). We show that the (1, epsilon)-restricted case is also NP-hard to approximate within any ratio smaller than 2. Hence, this simple special case is still algorithmically interesting.
Using the configuration-LP, we are able to estimate the optimal value of the problem within a factor of 3 + delta, for any delta > 0. Extending this idea, we also obtain a quasi-polynomial time (3 + 4 epsilon)-approximation algorithm and a polynomial time 9-approximation algorithm. Moreover, we show that as epsilon tends to 0, the approximation ratio of our polynomial-time algorithm approaches 3 + 2 sqrt{2} approx 5.83.

T-H. Hubert Chan, Zhihao Gavin Tang, and Xiaowei Wu. On (1, epsilon)-Restricted Max-Min Fair Allocation Problem. In 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 64, pp. 23:1-23:13, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{chan_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.23, author = {Chan, T-H. Hubert and Tang, Zhihao Gavin and Wu, Xiaowei}, title = {{On (1, epsilon)-Restricted Max-Min Fair Allocation Problem}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)}, pages = {23:1--23:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-026-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {64}, editor = {Hong, Seok-Hee}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-67939}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.23}, annote = {Keywords: Max-Min Fair Allocation, Hypergraph Matching} }

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