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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We consider prophet inequalities subject to feasibility constraints that are the intersection of q matroids. The best-known algorithms achieve a Θ(q)-approximation, even when restricted to instances that are the intersection of q partition matroids, and with i.i.d. Bernoulli random variables [José R. Correa et al., 2022; Moran Feldman et al., 2016; Marek Adamczyk and Michal Wlodarczyk, 2018]. The previous best-known lower bound is Θ(√q) due to a simple construction of [Robert Kleinberg and S. Matthew Weinberg, 2012] (which uses i.i.d. Bernoulli random variables, and writes the construction as the intersection of partition matroids).
We establish an improved lower bound of q^{1/2+Ω(1/log log q)} by writing the construction of [Robert Kleinberg and S. Matthew Weinberg, 2012] as the intersection of asymptotically fewer partition matroids. We accomplish this via an improved upper bound on the product dimension of a graph with p^p disjoint cliques of size p, using recent techniques developed in [Noga Alon and Ryan Alweiss, 2020].

Raghuvansh R. Saxena, Santhoshini Velusamy, and S. Matthew Weinberg. An Improved Lower Bound for Matroid Intersection Prophet Inequalities. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 95:1-95:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{saxena_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.95, author = {Saxena, Raghuvansh R. and Velusamy, Santhoshini and Weinberg, S. Matthew}, title = {{An Improved Lower Bound for Matroid Intersection Prophet Inequalities}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {95:1--95:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.95}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175986}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.95}, annote = {Keywords: Prophet Inequalities, Intersection of Matroids} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

We analyze the sketching approximability of constraint satisfaction problems on Boolean domains, where the constraints are balanced linear threshold functions applied to literals. In particular, we explore the approximability of monarchy-like functions where the value of the function is determined by a weighted combination of the vote of the first variable (the president) and the sum of the votes of all remaining variables. The pure version of this function is when the president can only be overruled by when all remaining variables agree. For every k ≥ 5, we show that CSPs where the underlying predicate is a pure monarchy function on k variables have no non-trivial sketching approximation algorithm in o(√n) space. We also show infinitely many weaker monarchy functions for which CSPs using such constraints are non-trivially approximable by O(log(n)) space sketching algorithms. Moreover, we give the first example of sketching approximable asymmetric Boolean CSPs. Our results work within the framework of Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, and Velusamy (FOCS 2021) that characterizes the sketching approximability of all CSPs. Their framework can be applied naturally to get a computer-aided analysis of the approximability of any specific constraint satisfaction problem. The novelty of our work is in using their work to get an analysis that applies to infinitely many problems simultaneously.

Chi-Ning Chou, Alexander Golovnev, Amirbehshad Shahrasbi, Madhu Sudan, and Santhoshini Velusamy. Sketching Approximability of (Weak) Monarchy Predicates. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 35:1-35:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chou_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.35, author = {Chou, Chi-Ning and Golovnev, Alexander and Shahrasbi, Amirbehshad and Sudan, Madhu and Velusamy, Santhoshini}, title = {{Sketching Approximability of (Weak) Monarchy Predicates}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {35:1--35:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171573}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.35}, annote = {Keywords: sketching algorithms, approximability, linear threshold functions} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

A Boolean maximum constraint satisfaction problem, Max-CSP(f), is specified by a predicate f:{-1,1}^k → {0,1}. An n-variable instance of Max-CSP(f) consists of a list of constraints, each of which applies f to k distinct literals drawn from the n variables. For k = 2, Chou, Golovnev, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2020] obtained explicit ratios characterizing the √ n-space streaming approximability of every predicate. For k ≥ 3, Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2022] proved a general dichotomy theorem for √ n-space sketching algorithms: For every f, there exists α(f) ∈ (0,1] such that for every ε > 0, Max-CSP(f) is (α(f)-ε)-approximable by an O(log n)-space linear sketching algorithm, but (α(f)+ε)-approximation sketching algorithms require Ω(√n) space.
In this work, we give closed-form expressions for the sketching approximation ratios of multiple families of symmetric Boolean functions. Letting α'_k = 2^{-(k-1)} (1-k^{-2})^{(k-1)/2}, we show that for odd k ≥ 3, α(kAND) = α'_k, and for even k ≥ 2, α(kAND) = 2α'_{k+1}. Thus, for every k, kAND can be (2-o(1))2^{-k}-approximated by O(log n)-space sketching algorithms; we contrast this with a lower bound of Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, Velingker, and Velusamy [Chou et al., 2022] implying that streaming (2+ε)2^{-k}-approximations require Ω(n) space! We also resolve the ratio for the "at-least-(k-1)-1’s" function for all even k; the "exactly-(k+1)/2-1’s" function for odd k ∈ {3,…,51}; and fifteen other functions. We stress here that for general f, the dichotomy theorem in [Chou et al., 2022] only implies that α(f) can be computed to arbitrary precision in PSPACE, and thus closed-form expressions need not have existed a priori. Our analyses involve identifying and exploiting structural "saddle-point" properties of this dichotomy.
Separately, for all threshold functions, we give optimal "bias-based" approximation algorithms generalizing [Chou et al., 2020] while simplifying [Chou et al., 2022]. Finally, we investigate the √ n-space streaming lower bounds in [Chou et al., 2022], and show that they are incomplete for 3AND, i.e., they fail to rule out (α(3AND})-ε)-approximations in o(√ n) space.

Joanna Boyland, Michael Hwang, Tarun Prasad, Noah Singer, and Santhoshini Velusamy. On Sketching Approximations for Symmetric Boolean CSPs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 38:1-38:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{boyland_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.38, author = {Boyland, Joanna and Hwang, Michael and Prasad, Tarun and Singer, Noah and Velusamy, Santhoshini}, title = {{On Sketching Approximations for Symmetric Boolean CSPs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {38:1--38:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171604}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.38}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming algorithms, constraint satisfaction problems, approximability} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)

An ordering constraint satisfaction problem (OCSP) is given by a positive integer k and a constraint predicate Π mapping permutations on {1,…,k} to {0,1}. Given an instance of OCSP(Π) on n variables and m constraints, the goal is to find an ordering of the n variables that maximizes the number of constraints that are satisfied, where a constraint specifies a sequence of k distinct variables and the constraint is satisfied by an ordering on the n variables if the ordering induced on the k variables in the constraint satisfies Π. Ordering constraint satisfaction problems capture natural problems including "Maximum acyclic subgraph (MAS)" and "Betweenness".
In this work we consider the task of approximating the maximum number of satisfiable constraints in the (single-pass) streaming setting, where an instance is presented as a stream of constraints. We show that for every Π, OCSP(Π) is approximation-resistant to o(n)-space streaming algorithms, i.e., algorithms using o(n) space cannot distinguish streams where almost every constraint is satisfiable from streams where no ordering beats the random ordering by a noticeable amount. This space bound is tight up to polylogarithmic factors. In the case of MAS our result shows that for every ε > 0, MAS is not 1/2+ε-approximable in o(n) space. The previous best inapproximability result only ruled out a 3/4-approximation in o(√ n) space.
Our results build on recent works of Chou, Golovnev, Sudan, Velingker, and Velusamy who show tight, linear-space inapproximability results for a broad class of (non-ordering) constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) over arbitrary (finite) alphabets. Our results are obtained by building a family of appropriate CSPs (one for every q) from any given OCSP, and applying their work to this family of CSPs. To convert the resulting hardness results for CSPs back to our OCSP, we show that the hard instances from this earlier work have the following "small-set expansion" property: If the CSP instance is viewed as a hypergraph in the natural way, then for every partition of the hypergraph into small blocks most of the hyperedges are incident on vertices from distinct blocks. By exploiting this combinatorial property, in combination with the hardness results of the resulting families of CSPs, we give optimal inapproximability results for all OCSPs.

Noah Singer, Madhu Sudan, and Santhoshini Velusamy. Streaming Approximation Resistance of Every Ordering CSP. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 17:1-17:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{singer_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.17, author = {Singer, Noah and Sudan, Madhu and Velusamy, Santhoshini}, title = {{Streaming Approximation Resistance of Every Ordering CSP}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)}, pages = {17:1--17:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-207-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {207}, editor = {Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147106}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.17}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming approximations, approximation resistance, constraint satisfaction problems, ordering constraint satisfaction problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)

We consider the bit-probe complexity of the set membership problem: represent an n-element subset S of an m-element universe as a succinct bit vector so that membership queries of the form "Is x ∈ S" can be answered using at most t probes into the bit vector. Let s(m,n,t) (resp. s_N(m,n,t)) denote the minimum number of bits of storage needed when the probes are adaptive (resp. non-adaptive). Lewenstein, Munro, Nicholson, and Raman (ESA 2014) obtain fully-explicit schemes that show that
s(m,n,t) = 𝒪((2^t-1)m^{1/(t - min{2⌊log n⌋, n-3/2})}) for n ≥ 2,t ≥ ⌊log n⌋+1 .
In this work, we improve this bound when the probes are allowed to be superlinear in n, i.e., when t ≥ Ω(nlog n), n ≥ 2, we design fully-explicit schemes that show that
s(m,n,t) = 𝒪((2^t-1)m^{1/(t-{n-1}/{2^{t/(2(n-1))}})}),
asymptotically (in the exponent of m) close to the non-explicit upper bound on s(m,n,t) derived by Radhakrishan, Shah, and Shannigrahi (ESA 2010), for constant n.
In the non-adaptive setting, it was shown by Garg and Radhakrishnan (STACS 2017) that for a large constant n₀, for n ≥ n₀, s_N(m,n,3) ≥ √{mn}. We improve this result by showing that the same lower bound holds even for storing sets of size 2, i.e., s_N(m,2,3) ≥ Ω(√m).

Palash Dey, Jaikumar Radhakrishnan, and Santhoshini Velusamy. Improved Explicit Data Structures in the Bit-Probe Model Using Error-Correcting Codes. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 28:1-28:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{dey_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.28, author = {Dey, Palash and Radhakrishnan, Jaikumar and Velusamy, Santhoshini}, title = {{Improved Explicit Data Structures in the Bit-Probe Model Using Error-Correcting Codes}}, booktitle = {45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)}, pages = {28:1--28:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-159-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {170}, editor = {Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126965}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.28}, annote = {Keywords: Set membership, Bit-probe model, Fully-explicit data structures, Adaptive data structures, Error-correcting codes} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 81, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)

We study the complexity of estimating the optimum value of a Boolean 2CSP (arity two constraint satisfaction problem) in the single-pass streaming setting, where the algorithm is presented the constraints in an arbitrary order. We give a streaming algorithm to estimate the optimum within a factor approaching 2/5 using logarithmic space, with high probability. This beats the trivial factor 1/4 estimate obtained by simply outputting 1/4-th of the total number of constraints.
The inspiration for our work is a lower bound of Kapralov, Khanna, and Sudan (SODA'15) who showed that a similar trivial estimate (of factor 1/2) is the best one can do for Max CUT. This lower bound implies that beating a factor 1/2 for Max DICUT (a special case of Max 2CSP), in particular, to distinguish between the case when the optimum is m/2 versus when it is at most (1/4+eps)m, where m is the total number of edges, requires polynomial space. We complement this hardness result by showing that for DICUT, one can distinguish between the case in which the optimum exceeds (1/2+eps)m and the case in which it is close to m/4.
We also prove that estimating the size of the maximum acyclic subgraph of a directed graph, when its edges are presented in a single-pass stream, within a factor better than 7/8 requires polynomial space.

Venkatesan Guruswami, Ameya Velingker, and Santhoshini Velusamy. Streaming Complexity of Approximating Max 2CSP and Max Acyclic Subgraph. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 81, pp. 8:1-8:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{guruswami_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.8, author = {Guruswami, Venkatesan and Velingker, Ameya and Velusamy, Santhoshini}, title = {{Streaming Complexity of Approximating Max 2CSP and Max Acyclic Subgraph}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2017)}, pages = {8:1--8:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-044-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {81}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Williamson, David P. and Vempala, Santosh S.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75570}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2017.8}, annote = {Keywords: approximation algorithms, constraint satisfaction problems, optimization, hardness of approximation, maximum acyclic subgraph} }

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