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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Online caching is among the most fundamental and well-studied problems in the area of online algorithms. Innovative algorithmic ideas and analysis - including potential functions and primal-dual techniques - give insight into this still-growing area. Here, we introduce a new analysis technique that first uses a potential function to upper bound the cost of an online algorithm and then pairs that with a new dual-fitting strategy to lower bound the cost of an offline optimal algorithm. We apply these techniques to the Caching with Reserves problem recently introduced by Ibrahimpur et al. [Ibrahimpur et al., 2022] and give an O(log k)-competitive fractional online algorithm via a marking strategy, where k denotes the size of the cache. We also design a new online rounding algorithm that runs in polynomial time to obtain an O(log k)-competitive randomized integral algorithm. Additionally, we provide a new, simple proof for randomized marking for the classical unweighted paging problem.

Sharat Ibrahimpur, Manish Purohit, Zoya Svitkina, Erik Vee, and Joshua R. Wang. Efficient Caching with Reserves via Marking. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 80:1-80:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{ibrahimpur_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.80, author = {Ibrahimpur, Sharat and Purohit, Manish and Svitkina, Zoya and Vee, Erik and Wang, Joshua R.}, title = {{Efficient Caching with Reserves via Marking}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {80:1--80:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.80}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181328}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.80}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Online Algorithms, Caching} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

Caching is among the most well-studied topics in algorithm design, in part because it is such a fundamental component of many computer systems. Much of traditional caching research studies cache management for a single-user or single-processor environment. In this paper, we propose two related generalizations of the classical caching problem that capture issues that arise in a multi-user or multi-processor environment. In the caching with reserves problem, a caching algorithm is required to maintain at least k_i pages belonging to user i in the cache at any time, for some given reserve capacities k_i. In the public-private caching problem, the cache of total size k is partitioned into subcaches, a private cache of size k_i for each user i and a shared public cache usable by any user. In both of these models, as in the classical caching framework, the objective of the algorithm is to dynamically maintain the cache so as to minimize the total number of cache misses.
We show that caching with reserves and public-private caching models are equivalent up to constant factors, and thus focus on the former. Unlike classical caching, both of these models turn out to be NP-hard even in the offline setting, where the page sequence is known in advance. For the offline setting, we design a 2-approximation algorithm, whose analysis carefully keeps track of a potential function to bound the cost. In the online setting, we first design an O(ln k)-competitive fractional algorithm using the primal-dual framework, and then show how to convert it online to a randomized integral algorithm with the same guarantee.

Sharat Ibrahimpur, Manish Purohit, Zoya Svitkina, Erik Vee, and Joshua R. Wang. Caching with Reserves. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 52:1-52:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ibrahimpur_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.52, author = {Ibrahimpur, Sharat and Purohit, Manish and Svitkina, Zoya and Vee, Erik and Wang, Joshua R.}, title = {{Caching with Reserves}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {52:1--52:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.52}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171741}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.52}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Online Algorithms, Caching} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 219, 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)

We consider the problem of efficiently scheduling jobs with precedence constraints on a set of identical machines in the presence of a uniform communication delay. Such precedence-constrained jobs can be modeled as a directed acyclic graph, G = (V, E). In this setting, if two precedence-constrained jobs u and v, with v dependent on u (u ≺ v), are scheduled on different machines, then v must start at least ρ time units after u completes. The scheduling objective is to minimize makespan, i.e. the total time from when the first job starts to when the last job finishes. The focus of this paper is to provide an efficient approximation algorithm with near-linear running time. We build on the algorithm of Lepere and Rapine [STACS 2002] for this problem to give an O((ln ρ)/(ln ln ρ))-approximation algorithm that runs in Õ(|V|+|E|) time.

Quanquan C. Liu, Manish Purohit, Zoya Svitkina, Erik Vee, and Joshua R. Wang. Scheduling with Communication Delay in Near-Linear Time. In 39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 219, pp. 47:1-47:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2022.47, author = {Liu, Quanquan C. and Purohit, Manish and Svitkina, Zoya and Vee, Erik and Wang, Joshua R.}, title = {{Scheduling with Communication Delay in Near-Linear Time}}, booktitle = {39th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2022)}, pages = {47:1--47:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-222-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {219}, editor = {Berenbrink, Petra and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-158570}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2022.47}, annote = {Keywords: near-linear time scheduling, scheduling with duplication, precedence-constrained jobs, graph algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

Given a set of numbers, the k-SUM problem asks for a subset of k numbers that sums to zero. When the numbers are integers, the time and space complexity of k-SUM is generally studied in the word-RAM model; when the numbers are reals, the complexity is studied in the real-RAM model, and space is measured by the number of reals held in memory at any point. We present a time and space efficient deterministic self-reduction for the k-SUM problem which holds for both models, and has many interesting consequences. To illustrate:
- 3-SUM is in deterministic time O(n^2*lg(lg(n))/lg(n)) and space O(sqrt(n*lg(n)/lg(lg(n)))). In general, any polylogarithmic-time improvement over quadratic time for 3-SUM can be converted into an algorithm with an identical time improvement but low space complexity as well.
- 3-SUM is in deterministic time O(n^2) and space O(sqrt(n)), derandomizing an algorithm of Wang.
- A popular conjecture states that 3-SUM requires n^{2-o(1)} time on the word-RAM. We show that the 3-SUM Conjecture is in fact equivalent to the (seemingly weaker) conjecture that every O(n^{.51})-space algorithm for 3-SUM requires at least n^{2-o(1)} time on the word-RAM.
- For k >= 4, k-SUM is in deterministic O(n^{k-2+2/k}) time and O(sqrt(n)) space.

Andrea Lincoln, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Joshua R. Wang, and R. Ryan Williams. Deterministic Time-Space Trade-Offs for k-SUM. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 58:1-58:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{lincoln_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.58, author = {Lincoln, Andrea and Vassilevska Williams, Virginia and Wang, Joshua R. and Williams, R. Ryan}, title = {{Deterministic Time-Space Trade-Offs for k-SUM}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {58:1--58:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62250}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.58}, annote = {Keywords: 3SUM, kSUM, time-space tradeoff, algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

The k-means method is a widely used technique for clustering points in Euclidean space. While it is extremely fast in practice, its worst-case running time is exponential in the number of data points. We prove that the k-means method can implicitly solve PSPACE-complete problems, providing a complexity-theoretic explanation for its worst-case running time. Our result parallels recent work on the complexity of the simplex method for linear programming.

Tim Roughgarden and Joshua R. Wang. The Complexity of the k-means Method. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 78:1-78:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{roughgarden_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.78, author = {Roughgarden, Tim and Wang, Joshua R.}, title = {{The Complexity of the k-means Method}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {78:1--78:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.78}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-64191}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.78}, annote = {Keywords: k-means, PSPACE-complete} }

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