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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Motivated by an application from geodesy, we study the connected k-center problem and the connected k-diameter problem. These problems arise from the classical k-center and k-diameter problems by adding a side constraint. For the side constraint, we are given an undirected connectivity graph G on the input points, and a clustering is now only feasible if every cluster induces a connected subgraph in G. Usually in clustering problems one assumes that the clusters are pairwise disjoint. We study this case but additionally also the case that clusters are allowed to be non-disjoint. This can help to satisfy the connectivity constraints.
Our main result is an O(1)-approximation algorithm for the disjoint connected k-center and k-diameter problem for Euclidean spaces of low dimension (constant d) and for metrics with constant doubling dimension. For general metrics, we get an O(log²k)-approximation. Our algorithms work by computing a non-disjoint connected clustering first and transforming it into a disjoint connected clustering.
We complement these upper bounds by several upper and lower bounds for variations and special cases of the model.

Lukas Drexler, Jan Eube, Kelin Luo, Heiko Röglin, Melanie Schmidt, and Julian Wargalla. Connected k-Center and k-Diameter Clustering. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 50:1-50:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{drexler_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.50, author = {Drexler, Lukas and Eube, Jan and Luo, Kelin and R\"{o}glin, Heiko and Schmidt, Melanie and Wargalla, Julian}, title = {{Connected k-Center and k-Diameter Clustering}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {50:1--50:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.50}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181024}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.50}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, Clustering, Connectivity constraints} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)

In a hierarchical clustering problem the task is to compute a series of mutually compatible clusterings of a finite metric space (P,dist). Starting with the clustering where every point forms its own cluster, one iteratively merges two clusters until only one cluster remains. Complete linkage is a well-known and popular algorithm to compute such clusterings: in every step it merges the two clusters whose union has the smallest radius (or diameter) among all currently possible merges. We prove that the radius (or diameter) of every k-clustering computed by complete linkage is at most by factor O(k) (or O(k²)) worse than an optimal k-clustering minimizing the radius (or diameter). Furthermore we give a negative answer to the question proposed by Dasgupta and Long [Sanjoy Dasgupta and Philip M. Long, 2005], who show a lower bound of Ω(log(k)) and ask if the approximation guarantee is in fact Θ(log(k)). We present instances where complete linkage performs poorly in the sense that the k-clustering computed by complete linkage is off by a factor of Ω(k) from an optimal solution for radius and diameter. We conclude that in general metric spaces complete linkage does not perform asymptotically better than single linkage, merging the two clusters with smallest inter-cluster distance, for which we prove an approximation guarantee of O(k).

Anna Arutyunova, Anna Großwendt, Heiko Röglin, Melanie Schmidt, and Julian Wargalla. Upper and Lower Bounds for Complete Linkage in General Metric Spaces. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 18:1-18:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{arutyunova_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.18, author = {Arutyunova, Anna and Gro{\ss}wendt, Anna and R\"{o}glin, Heiko and Schmidt, Melanie and Wargalla, Julian}, title = {{Upper and Lower Bounds for Complete Linkage in General Metric Spaces}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)}, pages = {18:1--18:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-207-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {207}, editor = {Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147115}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.18}, annote = {Keywords: Hierarchical Clustering, Complete Linkage, agglomerative Clustering, k-Center} }

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