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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We study the problem of performing counting queries at different levels in hierarchical structures while preserving individuals' privacy. Motivated by applications, we propose a new error measure for this problem by considering a combination of multiplicative and additive approximation to the query results. We examine known mechanisms in differential privacy (DP) and prove their optimality, under this measure, in the pure-DP setting. In the approximate-DP setting, we design new algorithms achieving significant improvements over known ones.

Badih Ghazi, Pritish Kamath, Ravi Kumar, Pasin Manurangsi, and Kewen Wu. On Differentially Private Counting on Trees. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 66:1-66:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{ghazi_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.66, author = {Ghazi, Badih and Kamath, Pritish and Kumar, Ravi and Manurangsi, Pasin and Wu, Kewen}, title = {{On Differentially Private Counting on Trees}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {66:1--66:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.66}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181186}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.66}, annote = {Keywords: Differential Privacy, Algorithms, Trees, Hierarchies} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 200, 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)

We prove that for every parity decision tree of depth d on n variables, the sum of absolute values of Fourier coefficients at level 𝓁 is at most d^{𝓁/2} ⋅ O(𝓁 ⋅ log(n))^𝓁. Our result is nearly tight for small values of 𝓁 and extends a previous Fourier bound for standard decision trees by Sherstov, Storozhenko, and Wu (STOC, 2021).
As an application of our Fourier bounds, using the results of Bansal and Sinha (STOC, 2021), we show that the k-fold Forrelation problem has (randomized) parity decision tree complexity Ω̃(n^{1-1/k}), while having quantum query complexity ⌈ k/2⌉.
Our proof follows a random-walk approach, analyzing the contribution of a random path in the decision tree to the level-𝓁 Fourier expression. To carry the argument, we apply a careful cleanup procedure to the parity decision tree, ensuring that the value of the random walk is bounded with high probability. We observe that step sizes for the level-𝓁 walks can be computed by the intermediate values of level ≤ 𝓁-1 walks, which calls for an inductive argument. Our approach differs from previous proofs of Tal (FOCS, 2020) and Sherstov, Storozhenko, and Wu (STOC, 2021) that relied on decompositions of the tree. In particular, for the special case of standard decision trees we view our proof as slightly simpler and more intuitive.
In addition, we prove a similar bound for noisy decision trees of cost at most d - a model that was recently introduced by Ben-David and Blais (FOCS, 2020).

Uma Girish, Avishay Tal, and Kewen Wu. Fourier Growth of Parity Decision Trees. In 36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 200, pp. 39:1-39:36, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{girish_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2021.39, author = {Girish, Uma and Tal, Avishay and Wu, Kewen}, title = {{Fourier Growth of Parity Decision Trees}}, booktitle = {36th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2021)}, pages = {39:1--39:36}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-193-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {200}, editor = {Kabanets, Valentine}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.39}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-143137}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2021.39}, annote = {Keywords: Fourier analysis of Boolean functions, noisy decision tree, parity decision tree, query complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 187, 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)

We provide improved upper bounds for the simultaneous sketching complexity of edit distance. Consider two parties, Alice with input x ∈ Σⁿ and Bob with input y ∈ Σⁿ, that share public randomness and are given a promise that the edit distance ed(x,y) between their two strings is at most some given value k. Alice must send a message sx and Bob must send sy to a third party Charlie, who does not know the inputs but shares the same public randomness and also knows k. Charlie must output ed(x,y) precisely as well as a sequence of ed(x,y) edits required to transform x into y. The goal is to minimize the lengths |sx|, |sy| of the messages sent.
The protocol of Belazzougui and Zhang (FOCS 2016), building upon the random walk method of Chakraborty, Goldenberg, and Koucký (STOC 2016), achieves a maximum message length of Õ(k⁸) bits, where Õ(⋅) hides poly(log n) factors. In this work we build upon Belazzougui and Zhang’s protocol and provide an improved analysis demonstrating that a slight modification of their construction achieves a bound of Õ(k³).

Ce Jin, Jelani Nelson, and Kewen Wu. An Improved Sketching Algorithm for Edit Distance. In 38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 187, pp. 45:1-45:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{jin_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45, author = {Jin, Ce and Nelson, Jelani and Wu, Kewen}, title = {{An Improved Sketching Algorithm for Edit Distance}}, booktitle = {38th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2021)}, pages = {45:1--45:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-180-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {187}, editor = {Bl\"{a}ser, Markus and Monmege, Benjamin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136905}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2021.45}, annote = {Keywords: edit distance, sketching} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

Polynomial representations of Boolean functions over various rings such as ℤ and ℤ_m have been studied since Minsky and Papert (1969). From then on, they have been employed in a large variety of areas including communication complexity, circuit complexity, learning theory, coding theory and so on. For any integer m ≥ 2, each Boolean function has a unique multilinear polynomial representation over ring ℤ_m. The degree of such polynomial is called modulo-m degree, denoted as deg_m(⋅).
In this paper, we investigate the lower bound of modulo-m degree of Boolean functions. When m = p^k (k ≥ 1) for some prime p, we give a tight lower bound deg_m(f) ≥ k(p-1) for any non-degenerate function f:{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1}, provided that n is sufficient large. When m contains two different prime factors p and q, we give a nearly optimal lower bound for any symmetric function f:{0,1}ⁿ → {0,1} that deg_m(f) ≥ n/{2+1/(p-1)+1/(q-1)}.

Xiaoming Sun, Yuan Sun, Jiaheng Wang, Kewen Wu, Zhiyu Xia, and Yufan Zheng. On the Degree of Boolean Functions as Polynomials over ℤ_m. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 100:1-100:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{sun_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100, author = {Sun, Xiaoming and Sun, Yuan and Wang, Jiaheng and Wu, Kewen and Xia, Zhiyu and Zheng, Yufan}, title = {{On the Degree of Boolean Functions as Polynomials over \mathbb{Z}\underlinem}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {100:1--100:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125070}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.100}, annote = {Keywords: Boolean function, polynomial, modular degree, Ramsey theory} }