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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 289, 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)

In the Exact Matching problem, we are given a graph whose edges are colored red or blue and the task is to decide for a given integer k, if there is a perfect matching with exactly k red edges. Since 1987 it is known that the Exact Matching Problem can be solved in randomized polynomial time. Despite numerous efforts, it is still not known today whether a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm exists as well. In this paper, we make substantial progress by solving the problem for a multitude of different classes of dense graphs. We solve the Exact Matching problem in deterministic polynomial time for complete r-partite graphs, for unit interval graphs, for bipartite unit interval graphs, for graphs of bounded neighborhood diversity, for chain graphs, and for graphs without a complete bipartite t-hole. We solve the problem in quasi-polynomial time for Erdős-Rényi random graphs G(n, 1/2). We also reprove an earlier result for bounded independence number/bipartite independence number. We use two main tools to obtain these results: A local search algorithm as well as a generalization of an earlier result by Karzanov.

Nicolas El Maalouly, Sebastian Haslebacher, and Lasse Wulf. On the Exact Matching Problem in Dense Graphs. In 41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 289, pp. 33:1-33:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{elmaalouly_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2024.33, author = {El Maalouly, Nicolas and Haslebacher, Sebastian and Wulf, Lasse}, title = {{On the Exact Matching Problem in Dense Graphs}}, booktitle = {41st International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2024)}, pages = {33:1--33:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-311-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {289}, editor = {Beyersdorff, Olaf and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Kupferman, Orna and Lokshtanov, Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-197437}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2024.33}, annote = {Keywords: Exact Matching, Perfect Matching, Red-Blue Matching, Bounded Color Matching, Local Search, Derandomization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)

Given an integer k and a graph where every edge is colored either red or blue, the goal of the exact matching problem is to find a perfect matching with the property that exactly k of its edges are red. Soon after Papadimitriou and Yannakakis (JACM 1982) introduced the problem, a randomized polynomial-time algorithm solving the problem was described by Mulmuley et al. (Combinatorica 1987). Despite a lot of effort, it is still not known today whether a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm exists. This makes the exact matching problem an important candidate to test the popular conjecture that the complexity classes P and RP are equal. In a recent article (MFCS 2022), progress was made towards this goal by showing that for bipartite graphs of bounded bipartite independence number, a polynomial time algorithm exists. In terms of parameterized complexity, this algorithm was an XP-algorithm parameterized by the bipartite independence number. In this article, we introduce novel algorithmic techniques that allow us to obtain an FPT-algorithm. If the input is a general graph we show that one can at least compute a perfect matching M which has the correct number of red edges modulo 2, in polynomial time. This is motivated by our last result, in which we prove that an FPT algorithm for general graphs, parameterized by the independence number, reduces to the problem of finding in polynomial time a perfect matching M with at most k red edges and the correct number of red edges modulo 2.

Nicolas El Maalouly, Raphael Steiner, and Lasse Wulf. Exact Matching: Correct Parity and FPT Parameterized by Independence Number. In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, pp. 28:1-28:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{elmaalouly_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.28, author = {El Maalouly, Nicolas and Steiner, Raphael and Wulf, Lasse}, title = {{Exact Matching: Correct Parity and FPT Parameterized by Independence Number}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)}, pages = {28:1--28:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-289-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {283}, editor = {Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193302}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.28}, annote = {Keywords: Perfect Matching, Exact Matching, Independence Number, Parameterized Complexity} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

In 1982 Papadimitriou and Yannakakis introduced the Exact Matching problem, in which given a red and blue edge-colored graph G and an integer k one has to decide whether there exists a perfect matching in G with exactly k red edges. Even though a randomized polynomial-time algorithm for this problem was quickly found a few years later, it is still unknown today whether a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm exists. This makes the Exact Matching problem an important candidate to test the RP=P hypothesis.
In this paper we focus on approximating Exact Matching. While there exists a simple algorithm that computes in deterministic polynomial-time an almost perfect matching with exactly k red edges, not a lot of work focuses on computing perfect matchings with almost k red edges. In fact such an algorithm for bipartite graphs running in deterministic polynomial-time was published only recently (STACS'23). It outputs a perfect matching with k' red edges with the guarantee that 0.5k ≤ k' ≤ 1.5k. In the present paper we aim at approximating the number of red edges without exceeding the limit of k red edges. We construct a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm, which on bipartite graphs computes a perfect matching with k' red edges such that k/3 ≤ k' ≤ k.

Anita Dürr, Nicolas El Maalouly, and Lasse Wulf. An Approximation Algorithm for the Exact Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 18:1-18:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{durr_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.18, author = {D\"{u}rr, Anita and El Maalouly, Nicolas and Wulf, Lasse}, title = {{An Approximation Algorithm for the Exact Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {18:1--18:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.18}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188436}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.18}, annote = {Keywords: Perfect Matching, Exact Matching, Red-Blue Matching, Approximation Algorithms, Bounded Color Matching} }

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