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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We study the time complexity of the discrete k-center problem and related (exact) geometric set cover problems when k or the size of the cover is small. We obtain a plethora of new results:
- We give the first subquadratic algorithm for rectilinear discrete 3-center in 2D, running in Õ(n^{3/2}) time.
- We prove a lower bound of Ω(n^{4/3-δ}) for rectilinear discrete 3-center in 4D, for any constant δ > 0, under a standard hypothesis about triangle detection in sparse graphs.
- Given n points and n weighted axis-aligned unit squares in 2D, we give the first subquadratic algorithm for finding a minimum-weight cover of the points by 3 unit squares, running in Õ(n^{8/5}) time. We also prove a lower bound of Ω(n^{3/2-δ}) for the same problem in 2D, under the well-known APSP Hypothesis. For arbitrary axis-aligned rectangles in 2D, our upper bound is Õ(n^{7/4}).
- We prove a lower bound of Ω(n^{2-δ}) for Euclidean discrete 2-center in 13D, under the Hyperclique Hypothesis. This lower bound nearly matches the straightforward upper bound of Õ(n^ω), if the matrix multiplication exponent ω is equal to 2.
- We similarly prove an Ω(n^{k-δ}) lower bound for Euclidean discrete k-center in O(k) dimensions for any constant k ≥ 3, under the Hyperclique Hypothesis. This lower bound again nearly matches known upper bounds if ω = 2.
- We also prove an Ω(n^{2-δ}) lower bound for the problem of finding 2 boxes to cover the largest number of points, given n points and n boxes in 12D . This matches the straightforward near-quadratic upper bound.

Timothy M. Chan, Qizheng He, and Yuancheng Yu. On the Fine-Grained Complexity of Small-Size Geometric Set Cover and Discrete k-Center for Small k. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 34:1-34:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chan_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.34, author = {Chan, Timothy M. and He, Qizheng and Yu, Yuancheng}, title = {{On the Fine-Grained Complexity of Small-Size Geometric Set Cover and Discrete k-Center for Small k}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {34:1--34:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180868}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.34}, annote = {Keywords: Geometric set cover, discrete k-center, conditional lower bounds} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

We study fundamental graph parameters such as the Diameter and Radius in directed graphs, when distances are measured using a somewhat unorthodox but natural measure: the distance between u and v is the minimum of the shortest path distances from u to v and from v to u. The center node in a graph under this measure can for instance represent the optimal location for a hospital to ensure the fastest medical care for everyone, as one can either go to the hospital, or a doctor can be sent to help.
By computing All-Pairs Shortest Paths, all pairwise distances and thus the parameters we study can be computed exactly in O~(mn) time for directed graphs on n vertices, m edges and nonnegative edge weights. Furthermore, this time bound is tight under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis [Roditty-Vassilevska W. STOC 2013] so it is natural to study how well these parameters can be approximated in O(mn^{1-epsilon}) time for constant epsilon>0. Abboud, Vassilevska Williams, and Wang [SODA 2016] gave a polynomial factor approximation for Diameter and Radius, as well as a constant factor approximation for both problems in the special case where the graph is a DAG. We greatly improve upon these bounds by providing the first constant factor approximations for Diameter, Radius and the related Eccentricities problem in general graphs. Additionally, we provide a hierarchy of algorithms for Diameter that gives a time/accuracy trade-off.

Mina Dalirrooyfard, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Nikhil Vyas, Nicole Wein, Yinzhan Xu, and Yuancheng Yu. Approximation Algorithms for Min-Distance Problems. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 46:1-46:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dalirrooyfard_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.46, author = {Dalirrooyfard, Mina and Williams, Virginia Vassilevska and Vyas, Nikhil and Wein, Nicole and Xu, Yinzhan and Yu, Yuancheng}, title = {{Approximation Algorithms for Min-Distance Problems}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {46:1--46:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106223}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.46}, annote = {Keywords: fine-grained complexity, graph algorithms, diameter, radius, eccentricities} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 101, 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)

Since the introduction of retroactive data structures at SODA 2004, a major unsolved problem has been to bound the gap between the best partially retroactive data structure (where changes can be made to the past, but only the present can be queried) and the best fully retroactive data structure (where the past can also be queried) for any problem. It was proved in 2004 that any partially retroactive data structure with operation time T_{op}(n,m) can be transformed into a fully retroactive data structure with operation time O(sqrt{m} * T_{op}(n,m)), where n is the size of the data structure and m is the number of operations in the timeline [Demaine et al., 2004]. But it has been open for 14 years whether such a gap is necessary.
In this paper, we prove nearly matching upper and lower bounds on this gap for all n and m. We improve the upper bound for n << sqrt m by showing a new transformation with multiplicative overhead n log m. We then prove a lower bound of min {n log m, sqrt m}^{1-o(1)} assuming any of the following conjectures:
- Conjecture I: Circuit SAT requires 2^{n - o(n)} time on n-input circuits of size 2^{o(n)}. This conjecture is far weaker than the well-believed SETH conjecture from complexity theory, which asserts that CNF SAT with n variables and O(n) clauses already requires 2^{n-o(n)} time.
- Conjecture II: Online (min,+) product between an integer n x n matrix and n vectors requires n^{3 - o(1)} time. This conjecture is weaker than the APSP conjectures widely used in fine-grained complexity.
- Conjecture III (3-SUM Conjecture): Given three sets A,B,C of integers, each of size n, deciding whether there exist a in A, b in B, c in C such that a + b + c = 0 requires n^{2 - o(1)} time. This 1995 conjecture [Anka Gajentaan and Mark H. Overmars, 1995] was the first conjecture in fine-grained complexity.
Our lower bound construction illustrates an interesting power of fully retroactive queries: they can be used to quickly solve batched pair evaluation. We believe this technique can prove useful for other data structure lower bounds, especially dynamic ones.

Lijie Chen, Erik D. Demaine, Yuzhou Gu, Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Yinzhan Xu, and Yuancheng Yu. Nearly Optimal Separation Between Partially and Fully Retroactive Data Structures. In 16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 101, pp. 33:1-33:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.33, author = {Chen, Lijie and Demaine, Erik D. and Gu, Yuzhou and Williams, Virginia Vassilevska and Xu, Yinzhan and Yu, Yuancheng}, title = {{Nearly Optimal Separation Between Partially and Fully Retroactive Data Structures}}, booktitle = {16th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2018)}, pages = {33:1--33:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-068-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {101}, editor = {Eppstein, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-88593}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2018.33}, annote = {Keywords: retroactive data structure, conditional lower bound} }

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