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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Transshipment is an important generalization of both the shortest path problem and the optimal transport problem. The task asks to route a demand using a flow of minimum cost over (uncapacitated) edges. Transshipment has recently received extensive attention in theoretical computer science as it is the centerpiece of all modern theoretical breakthroughs in parallel and distributed (approximate) shortest-path computation, a classic and well-studied problem.
The key advantage of transshipment over shortest paths is the so-called boosting property: one can often boost a crude approximate solution to a (near-optimal) (1+ε)-approximate solution. However, our understanding of this phenomenon is limited: it is not clear which approximators can be boosted. Moreover, all current boosting frameworks are built with a specific type of approximator in mind and are relatively complicated.
The main takeaway of our paper is conceptual: any black-box oracle that computes an approximate dual solution can be boosted to an (1+ε)-approximator. This decouples and simplifies all known near-optimal (1+ε)-approximate transshipment and shortest paths results: they all (implicitly) construct approximate dual solutions and boost them.
We provide a very simple analysis based on the multiplicative weights framework. Furthermore, to keep the paper completely self-contained, we provide a new (and arguably much simpler) analysis of multiplicative weights that leverages well-known optimization tools to bypass the ad-hoc calculations used in the standard analyses.

Goran Zuzic. A Simple Boosting Framework for Transshipment. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 104:1-104:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{zuzic:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.104, author = {Zuzic, Goran}, title = {{A Simple Boosting Framework for Transshipment}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {104:1--104:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.104}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-187570}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.104}, annote = {Keywords: mixed continuous-discrete optimization, boosting, multiplicative weights, theoretical computer science, shortest path, parallel algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 246, 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)

In this paper, we refine the (almost) existentially optimal distributed Laplacian solver recently developed by Forster, Goranci, Liu, Peng, Sun, and Ye (FOCS `21) into an (almost) universally optimal distributed Laplacian solver.
Specifically, when the topology is known (i.e., the Supported-CONGEST model), we show that any Laplacian system on an n-node graph with shortcut quality SQ(G) can be solved after n^{o(1)} SQ(G) log(1/ε) rounds, where ε is the required accuracy. This almost matches our lower bound that guarantees that any correct algorithm on G requires Ω̃(SQ(G)) rounds, even for a crude solution with ε ≤ 1/2. Several important implications hold in the unknown-topology (i.e., standard CONGEST) case: for excluded-minor graphs we get an almost universally optimal algorithm that terminates in D ⋅ n^{o(1)} log(1/ε) rounds, where D is the hop-diameter of the network; as well as n^{o(1)} log (1/ε)-round algorithms for the case of SQ(G) ≤ n^{o(1)}, which holds for most networks of interest. Conditioned on improvements in state-of-the-art constructions of low-congestion shortcuts, the CONGEST results will match the Supported-CONGEST ones.
Moreover, following a recent line of work in distributed algorithms, we consider a hybrid communication model which enhances CONGEST with limited global power in the form of the node-capacitated clique (NCC) model. In this model, we show the existence of a Laplacian solver with round complexity n^{o(1)} log(1/ε).
The unifying thread of these results, and our main technical contribution, is the study of a novel ρ-congested generalization of the standard part-wise aggregation problem. We develop near-optimal algorithms for this primitive in the Supported-CONGEST model, almost-optimal algorithms in (standard) CONGEST (with the additional overhead due to standard barriers), as well as a simple algorithm for bounded-treewidth graphs with a quadratic dependence on the congestion ρ. This primitive can be readily used to accelerate the Laplacian solver of Forster, Goranci, Liu, Peng, Sun, and Ye, and we believe it will find further independent applications in the future.

Ioannis Anagnostides, Christoph Lenzen, Bernhard Haeupler, Goran Zuzic, and Themis Gouleakis. Almost Universally Optimal Distributed Laplacian Solvers via Low-Congestion Shortcuts. In 36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 246, pp. 6:1-6:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{anagnostides_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2022.6, author = {Anagnostides, Ioannis and Lenzen, Christoph and Haeupler, Bernhard and Zuzic, Goran and Gouleakis, Themis}, title = {{Almost Universally Optimal Distributed Laplacian Solvers via Low-Congestion Shortcuts}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2022)}, pages = {6:1--6:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-255-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {246}, editor = {Scheideler, Christian}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171978}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2022.6}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed algorithms, Laplacian solvers, low-congestion shortcuts} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 244, 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)

Embeddings of graphs into distributions of trees that preserve distances in expectation are a cornerstone of many optimization algorithms. Unfortunately, online or dynamic algorithms which use these embeddings seem inherently randomized and ill-suited against adaptive adversaries.
In this paper we provide a new tree embedding which addresses these issues by deterministically embedding a graph into a single tree containing O(log n) copies of each vertex while preserving the connectivity structure of every subgraph and O(log² n)-approximating the cost of every subgraph. Using this embedding we obtain the first deterministic bicriteria approximation algorithm for the online covering Steiner problem as well as the first poly-log approximations for demand-robust Steiner forest, group Steiner tree and group Steiner forest.

Bernhard Haepler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, and Goran Zuzic. Adaptive-Adversary-Robust Algorithms via Small Copy Tree Embeddings. In 30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 244, pp. 63:1-63:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{haepler_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2022.63, author = {Haepler, Bernhard and Hershkowitz, D. Ellis and Zuzic, Goran}, title = {{Adaptive-Adversary-Robust Algorithms via Small Copy Tree Embeddings}}, booktitle = {30th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2022)}, pages = {63:1--63:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-247-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {244}, editor = {Chechik, Shiri and Navarro, Gonzalo and Rotenberg, Eva and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.63}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-170016}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2022.63}, annote = {Keywords: Tree metrics, metric embeddings, approximation algorithms, group Steiner forest, group Steiner tree, demand-robust algorithms, online algorithms, deterministic algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

In classical secretary problems, a sequence of n elements arrive in a uniformly random order, and we want to choose a single item, or a set of size K. The random order model allows us to escape from the strong lower bounds for the adversarial order setting, and excellent algorithms are known in this setting. However, one worrying aspect of these results is that the algorithms overfit to the model: they are not very robust. Indeed, if a few "outlier" arrivals are adversarially placed in the arrival sequence, the algorithms perform poorly. E.g., Dynkin’s popular 1/e-secretary algorithm is sensitive to even a single adversarial arrival: if the adversary gives one large bid at the beginning of the stream, the algorithm does not select any element at all.
We investigate a robust version of the secretary problem. In the Byzantine Secretary model, we have two kinds of elements: green (good) and red (rogue). The values of all elements are chosen by the adversary. The green elements arrive at times uniformly randomly drawn from [0,1]. The red elements, however, arrive at adversarially chosen times. Naturally, the algorithm does not see these colors: how well can it solve secretary problems?
We show that selecting the highest value red set, or the single largest green element is not possible with even a small fraction of red items. However, on the positive side, we show that these are the only bad cases, by giving algorithms which get value comparable to the value of the optimal green set minus the largest green item. (This benchmark reminds us of regret minimization and digital auctions, where we subtract an additive term depending on the "scale" of the problem.) Specifically, we give an algorithm to pick K elements, which gets within (1-ε) factor of the above benchmark, as long as K ≥ poly(ε^{-1} log n). We extend this to the knapsack secretary problem, for large knapsack size K.
For the single-item case, an analogous benchmark is the value of the second-largest green item. For value-maximization, we give a poly log^* n-competitive algorithm, using a multi-layered bucketing scheme that adaptively refines our estimates of second-max over time. For probability-maximization, we show the existence of a good randomized algorithm, using the minimax principle.
We hope that this work will spur further research on robust algorithms for the secretary problem, and for other problems in sequential decision-making, where the existing algorithms are not robust and often tend to overfit to the model.

Domagoj Bradac, Anupam Gupta, Sahil Singla, and Goran Zuzic. Robust Algorithms for the Secretary Problem. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 32:1-32:26, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bradac_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.32, author = {Bradac, Domagoj and Gupta, Anupam and Singla, Sahil and Zuzic, Goran}, title = {{Robust Algorithms for the Secretary Problem}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {32:1--32:26}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117171}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.32}, annote = {Keywords: stochastic optimization, robust optimization, secretary problem, matroid secretary, robust secretary} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)

The radio network model is a well-studied model of wireless, multi-hop networks. However, radio networks make the strong assumption that messages are delivered deterministically. The recently introduced noisy radio network model relaxes this assumption by dropping messages independently at random.
In this work we quantify the relative computational power of noisy radio networks and classic radio networks. In particular, given a non-adaptive protocol for a fixed radio network we show how to reliably simulate this protocol if noise is introduced with a multiplicative cost of poly(log Delta, log log n) rounds where n is the number nodes in the network and Delta is the max degree. Moreover, we demonstrate that, even if the simulated protocol is not non-adaptive, it can be simulated with a multiplicative O(Delta log ^2 Delta) cost in the number of rounds. Lastly, we argue that simulations with a multiplicative overhead of o(log Delta) are unlikely to exist by proving that an Omega(log Delta) multiplicative round overhead is necessary under certain natural assumptions.

Keren Censor-Hillel, Bernhard Haeupler, D. Ellis Hershkowitz, and Goran Zuzic. Erasure Correction for Noisy Radio Networks. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 10:1-10:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{censorhillel_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.10, author = {Censor-Hillel, Keren and Haeupler, Bernhard and Hershkowitz, D. Ellis and Zuzic, Goran}, title = {{Erasure Correction for Noisy Radio Networks}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)}, pages = {10:1--10:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-126-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {146}, editor = {Suomela, Jukka}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113170}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.10}, annote = {Keywords: radio networks, erasure correction, noisy radio networks, protocol simulation, distributed computing models} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

Consider a kidney-exchange application where we want to find a max-matching in a random graph. To find whether an edge e exists, we need to perform an expensive test, in which case the edge e appears independently with a known probability p_e. Given a budget on the total cost of the tests, our goal is to find a testing strategy that maximizes the expected maximum matching size.
The above application is an example of the stochastic probing problem. In general the optimal stochastic probing strategy is difficult to find because it is adaptive - decides on the next edge to probe based on the outcomes of the probed edges. An alternate approach is to show the adaptivity gap is small, i.e., the best non-adaptive strategy always has a value close to the best adaptive strategy. This allows us to focus on designing non-adaptive strategies that are much simpler. Previous works, however, have focused on Bernoulli random variables that can only capture whether an edge appears or not. In this work we introduce a multi-value stochastic probing problem, which can also model situations where the weight of an edge has a probability distribution over multiple values.
Our main technical contribution is to obtain (near) optimal bounds for the (worst-case) adaptivity gaps for multi-value stochastic probing over prefix-closed constraints. For a monotone submodular function, we show the adaptivity gap is at most 2 and provide a matching lower bound. For a weighted rank function of a k-extendible system (a generalization of intersection of k matroids), we show the adaptivity gap is between O(k log k) and k. None of these results were known even in the Bernoulli case where both our upper and lower bounds also apply, thereby resolving an open question of Gupta et al. [Gupta et al., 2017].

Domagoj Bradac, Sahil Singla, and Goran Zuzic. (Near) Optimal Adaptivity Gaps for Stochastic Multi-Value Probing. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 49:1-49:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{bradac_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.49, author = {Bradac, Domagoj and Singla, Sahil and Zuzic, Goran}, title = {{(Near) Optimal Adaptivity Gaps for Stochastic Multi-Value Probing}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {49:1--49:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.49}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112641}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.49}, annote = {Keywords: stochastic programming, adaptivity gaps, stochastic multi-value probing, submodular functions, k-extendible systems, adaptive strategy, matroid intersection} }