4 Search Results for "Sonnino, Alberto"


Document
STROBE: Streaming Threshold Random Beacons

Authors: Donald Beaver, Konstantinos Chalkias, Mahimna Kelkar, Lefteris Kokoris-Kogias, Kevin Lewi, Ladi de Naurois, Valeria Nikolaenko, Arnab Roy, and Alberto Sonnino

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 282, 5th Conference on Advances in Financial Technologies (AFT 2023)


Abstract
We revisit decentralized random beacons with a focus on practical distributed applications. Decentralized random beacons (Beaver and So, Eurocrypt'93) provide the functionality for n parties to generate an unpredictable sequence of bits in a way that cannot be biased, which is useful for any decentralized protocol requiring trusted randomness. Existing beacon constructions are highly inefficient in practical settings where protocol parties need to rejoin after crashes or disconnections, and more significantly where smart contracts may rely on arbitrary index points in high-volume streams. For this, we introduce a new notion of history-generating decentralized random beacons (HGDRBs). Roughly, the history-generation property of HGDRBs allows for previous beacon outputs to be efficiently generated knowing only the current value and the public key. At application layers, history-generation supports registering a sparser set of on-chain values if desired, so that apps like lotteries can utilize on-chain values without incurring high-frequency costs, enjoying all the benefits of DRBs implemented off-chain or with decoupled, special-purpose chains. Unlike rollups, HG is tailored specifically to recovering and verifying pseudorandom bit sequences and thus enjoys unique optimizations investigated in this work. We introduce STROBE: an efficient HGDRB construction which generalizes the original squaring-based RSA approach of Beaver and So. STROBE enjoys several useful properties that make it suited for practical applications that use beacons: 1) history-generating: it can regenerate and verify high-throughput beacon streams, supporting sparse (thus cost-effective) ledger entries; 2) concisely self-verifying: NIZK-free, with state and validation employing a single ring element; 3) eco-friendly: stake-based rather than work based; 4) unbounded: refresh-free, addressing limitations of Beaver and So; 5) delay-free: results are immediately available. 6) storage-efficient: the last beacon suffices to derive all past outputs, thus O(1) storage requirements for nodes serving the whole history.

Cite as

Donald Beaver, Konstantinos Chalkias, Mahimna Kelkar, Lefteris Kokoris-Kogias, Kevin Lewi, Ladi de Naurois, Valeria Nikolaenko, Arnab Roy, and Alberto Sonnino. STROBE: Streaming Threshold Random Beacons. In 5th Conference on Advances in Financial Technologies (AFT 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 282, pp. 7:1-7:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{beaver_et_al:LIPIcs.AFT.2023.7,
  author =	{Beaver, Donald and Chalkias, Konstantinos and Kelkar, Mahimna and Kokoris-Kogias, Lefteris and Lewi, Kevin and de Naurois, Ladi and Nikolaenko, Valeria and Roy, Arnab and Sonnino, Alberto},
  title =	{{STROBE: Streaming Threshold Random Beacons}},
  booktitle =	{5th Conference on Advances in Financial Technologies (AFT 2023)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:16},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-303-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{282},
  editor =	{Bonneau, Joseph and Weinberg, S. Matthew},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.AFT.2023.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-191969},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.AFT.2023.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: decentralized randomness, beacons, consensus, blockchain, lottery}
}
Document
Invited Talk
Efficient DAG-Based Consensus (Invited Talk)

Authors: Alberto Sonnino

Published in: OASIcs, Volume 101, 5th International Symposium on Foundations and Applications of Blockchain 2022 (FAB 2022)


Abstract
This talk shows how to build high-performant Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) quorum-based consensus cores. The talks starts by challenging the common misconception that the overall communication complexity of the protocol is the key factor determining performance. We instead argue that the bottleneck of many state-of-the-art consensus protocols is their sequential use of the machine’s resources (network, storage, CPU), and that data dissemination is the most resource-intensive task. In light of the above considerations, the first insight to build performant BFT-based consensus cores is to separate the task of reliable transaction dissemination from transaction ordering. We show how to design a new DAG-based mempool protocol, called Narwhal, specialising in high-throughput reliable dissemination and storage of causal histories of transactions. Narwhal tolerates an asynchronous network and maintains high performance despite failures. It is designed to easily scale-out using multiple workers at each validator to concurrently use the machine’s resources (network, storage, CPU), and demonstrates that there is no foreseeable limit to the throughput we can achieve. We then present two ways to leverage Narwhal to achieve consensus. We first (i) present Tusk, a zero-message overhead asynchronous consensus protocol designed to work with Narwhal. Tusk achieves an unprecedented 160,000 tx/s with about 3 seconds latency in a geo-replicated environment. We then (ii) show how any partially-synchronous consensus, such as HotStuff (PODC 19), can be composed with Narwhal to drastically improve its performance. HotStuff running over Narwhal sees its throughput increase from about 2,000 tx/s to over 130,000 tx/s without noticeable latency increase. The talk concludes by illustrating how to properly evaluate performance of BFT-based consensus cores. It highlights the most common mistakes seen in the literature, such as benchmarks with empty transactions (empty load), performance approximation based on LAN-only benchmarks, and using a single burst of input transactions. We then show how to analyse benchmark results using latency-throughput graphs (L-graphs) and SLA-based throughput graphs. Author Bio. I am a system researcher at Mysten Labs, based in London (UK). I previously was a research scientist at Facebook (now called Meta) in the blockchain and cryptography team. Before joining Facebook, I co-founded chainspace.io which built a scalable smart contract platform; the team was then acquired by Facebook. My research interests are in systems security and privacy engineering. My main areas of research include distributed systems, blockchains, and privacy enhancing technologies. I have a special interest in cryptography, and I spend most of my time designing, implementing and evaluating high-performance distributed systems.

Cite as

Alberto Sonnino. Efficient DAG-Based Consensus (Invited Talk). In 5th International Symposium on Foundations and Applications of Blockchain 2022 (FAB 2022). Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs), Volume 101, p. 4:1, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{sonnino:OASIcs.FAB.2022.4,
  author =	{Sonnino, Alberto},
  title =	{{Efficient DAG-Based Consensus}},
  booktitle =	{5th International Symposium on Foundations and Applications of Blockchain 2022 (FAB 2022)},
  pages =	{4:1--4:1},
  series =	{Open Access Series in Informatics (OASIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-248-8},
  ISSN =	{2190-6807},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{101},
  editor =	{Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara and Crooks, Natacha},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/OASIcs.FAB.2022.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-162712},
  doi =		{10.4230/OASIcs.FAB.2022.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Consensus protocol, Byzantine Fault Tolerant}
}
Document
Twins: BFT Systems Made Robust

Authors: Shehar Bano, Alberto Sonnino, Andrey Chursin, Dmitri Perelman, Zekun Li, Avery Ching, and Dahlia Malkhi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 217, 25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021)


Abstract
This paper presents Twins, an automated unit test generator of Byzantine attacks. Twins implements three types of Byzantine behaviors: (i) leader equivocation, (ii) double voting, and (iii) losing internal state such as forgetting "locks" guarding voted values. To emulate interesting attacks by a Byzantine node, it instantiates twin copies of the node instead of one, giving both twins the same identities and network credentials. To the rest of the system, the twins appear indistinguishable from a single node behaving in a "questionable" manner. Twins can systematically generate Byzantine attack scenarios at scale, execute them in a controlled manner, and examine their behavior. Twins scenarios iterate over protocol rounds and vary the communication patterns among nodes. Twins runs in a production setting within DiemBFT where it can execute 44M Twins-generated scenarios daily. Whereas the system at hand did not manifest errors, subtle safety bugs that were deliberately injected for the purpose of validating the implementation of Twins itself were exposed within minutes. Twins can prevent developers from regressing correctness when updating the codebase, introducing new features, or performing routine maintenance tasks. Twins only requires a thin wrapper over DiemBFT, we thus envision other systems using it. Building on this idea, one new attack and several known attacks against other BFT protocols were materialized as Twins scenarios. In all cases, the target protocols break within fewer than a dozen protocol rounds, hence it is realistic for the Twins approach to expose the problems.

Cite as

Shehar Bano, Alberto Sonnino, Andrey Chursin, Dmitri Perelman, Zekun Li, Avery Ching, and Dahlia Malkhi. Twins: BFT Systems Made Robust. In 25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 217, pp. 7:1-7:29, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{bano_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.7,
  author =	{Bano, Shehar and Sonnino, Alberto and Chursin, Andrey and Perelman, Dmitri and Li, Zekun and Ching, Avery and Malkhi, Dahlia},
  title =	{{Twins: BFT Systems Made Robust}},
  booktitle =	{25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:29},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-219-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{217},
  editor =	{Bramas, Quentin and Gramoli, Vincent and Milani, Alessia},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-157825},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance, Real-World Deployment}
}
Document
Brief Announcement
Brief Announcement: Twins – BFT Systems Made Robust

Authors: Shehar Bano, Alberto Sonnino, Andrey Chursin, Dmitri Perelman, Zekun Li, Avery Ching, and Dahlia Malkhi

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 209, 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)


Abstract
Twins is an effective strategy for generating test scenarios with Byzantine [Lamport et al., 1982] nodes in order to find flaws in Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) systems. Twins finds flaws in the design or implementation of BFT protocols that may cause correctness issues. The main idea of Twins is the following: running twin instances of a node that use correct, unmodified code and share the same network identity and credentials allows to emulate most interesting Byzantine behaviors. Because a twin executes normal, unmodified node code, building Twins only requires a thin wrapper over an existing distributed system designed for Byzantine tolerance. To emulate material, interesting scenarios with Byzantine nodes, it instantiates one or more twin copies of the node, giving the twins the same identities and network credentials as the original node. To the rest of the system, the node and all its twins appear indistinguishable from a single node behaving in a "questionable" manner. This approach generates many interesting Byzantine behaviors, including equivocation, double voting, and losing internal state, while forgoing uninteresting behavior scenarios that can be filtered at the transport layer, such as producing semantically invalid messages. Building on configurations with twin nodes, Twins systematically generates scenarios with Byzantine nodes via enumeration over protocol rounds and communication patterns among nodes. Despite this being inherently exponential, one new flaw and several known flaws were materialized by Twins in the arena of BFT consensus protocols. In all cases, protocols break within fewer than a dozen protocol rounds, hence it is realistic for the Twins approach to expose the problems. In two of these cases, it took the community more than a decade to discover protocol flaws that Twins would have surfaced within minutes. Additionally, Twins has been incorporated into the continuous release testing process of a production setting (DiemBFT) in which it can execute 44M Twins-generated scenarios daily.

Cite as

Shehar Bano, Alberto Sonnino, Andrey Chursin, Dmitri Perelman, Zekun Li, Avery Ching, and Dahlia Malkhi. Brief Announcement: Twins – BFT Systems Made Robust. In 35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 209, pp. 46:1-46:4, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{bano_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2021.46,
  author =	{Bano, Shehar and Sonnino, Alberto and Chursin, Andrey and Perelman, Dmitri and Li, Zekun and Ching, Avery and Malkhi, Dahlia},
  title =	{{Brief Announcement: Twins – BFT Systems Made Robust}},
  booktitle =	{35th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2021)},
  pages =	{46:1--46:4},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-210-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{209},
  editor =	{Gilbert, Seth},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.46},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-148485},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2021.46},
  annote =	{Keywords: Distributed Systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance, Real-World Deployment}
}
  • Refine by Author
  • 4 Sonnino, Alberto
  • 2 Bano, Shehar
  • 2 Ching, Avery
  • 2 Chursin, Andrey
  • 2 Li, Zekun
  • Show More...

  • Refine by Classification
  • 3 Security and privacy → Distributed systems security
  • 1 Security and privacy → Public key encryption

  • Refine by Keyword
  • 2 Byzantine Fault Tolerance
  • 2 Distributed Systems
  • 2 Real-World Deployment
  • 1 Byzantine Fault Tolerant
  • 1 Consensus protocol
  • Show More...

  • Refine by Type
  • 4 document

  • Refine by Publication Year
  • 2 2022
  • 1 2021
  • 1 2023

Questions / Remarks / Feedback
X

Feedback for Dagstuhl Publishing


Thanks for your feedback!

Feedback submitted

Could not send message

Please try again later or send an E-mail