3 Search Results for "Wang, Daochen"


Document
A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem

Authors: Scott Aaronson, Harry Buhrman, and William Kretschmer

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)


Abstract
Relational problems (those with many possible valid outputs) are different from decision problems, but it is easy to forget just how different. This paper initiates the study of FBQP/qpoly, the class of relational problems solvable in quantum polynomial-time with the help of polynomial-sized quantum advice, along with its analogues for deterministic and randomized computation (FP, FBPP) and advice (/poly, /rpoly). Our first result is that FBQP/qpoly ≠ FBQP/poly, unconditionally, with no oracle - a striking contrast with what we know about the analogous decision classes. The proof repurposes the separation between quantum and classical one-way communication complexities due to Bar-Yossef, Jayram, and Kerenidis. We discuss how this separation raises the prospect of near-term experiments to demonstrate "quantum information supremacy," a form of quantum supremacy that would not depend on unproved complexity assumptions. Our second result is that FBPP ̸ ⊂ FP/poly - that is, Adleman’s Theorem fails for relational problems - unless PSPACE ⊂ NP/poly. Our proof uses IP = PSPACE and time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. On the other hand, we show that proving FBPP ̸ ⊂ FP/poly will be hard, as it implies a superpolynomial circuit lower bound for PromiseBPEXP. We prove the following further results: - Unconditionally, FP ≠ FBPP and FP/poly ≠ FBPP/poly (even when these classes are carefully defined). - FBPP/poly = FBPP/rpoly (and likewise for FBQP). For sampling problems, by contrast, SampBPP/poly ≠ SampBPP/rpoly (and likewise for SampBQP).

Cite as

Scott Aaronson, Harry Buhrman, and William Kretschmer. A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 1:1-1:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)


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@InProceedings{aaronson_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1,
  author =	{Aaronson, Scott and Buhrman, Harry and Kretschmer, William},
  title =	{{A Qubit, a Coin, and an Advice String Walk into a Relational Problem}},
  booktitle =	{15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)},
  pages =	{1:1--1:24},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-309-6},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2024},
  volume =	{287},
  editor =	{Guruswami, Venkatesan},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195290},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Relational problems, quantum advice, randomized advice, FBQP, FBPP}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Parallel Self-Testing of EPR Pairs Under Computational Assumptions

Authors: Honghao Fu, Daochen Wang, and Qi Zhao

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
Self-testing is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics that allows a classical verifier to force untrusted quantum devices to prepare certain states and perform certain measurements on them. The standard approach assumes at least two spatially separated devices. Recently, Metger and Vidick [Metger and Vidick, 2021] showed that a single EPR pair of a single quantum device can be self-tested under computational assumptions. In this work, we generalize their results to give the first parallel self-test of N EPR pairs and measurements on them in the single-device setting under the same computational assumptions. We show that our protocol can be passed with probability negligibly close to 1 by an honest quantum device using poly(N) resources. Moreover, we show that any quantum device that fails our protocol with probability at most ε must be poly(N,ε)-close to being honest in the appropriate sense. In particular, our protocol can test any distribution over tensor products of computational or Hadamard basis measurements, making it suitable for applications such as device-independent quantum key distribution [Metger et al., 2021] under computational assumptions. Moreover, a simplified version of our protocol is the first that can efficiently certify an arbitrary number of qubits of a single cloud quantum computer using only classical communication.

Cite as

Honghao Fu, Daochen Wang, and Qi Zhao. Parallel Self-Testing of EPR Pairs Under Computational Assumptions. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 64:1-64:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


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@InProceedings{fu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.64,
  author =	{Fu, Honghao and Wang, Daochen and Zhao, Qi},
  title =	{{Parallel Self-Testing of EPR Pairs Under Computational Assumptions}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{64:1--64:19},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.64},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181160},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.64},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum complexity theory, self-testing, LWE}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More

Authors: Alexandru Gheorghiu, Tony Metger, and Alexander Poremba

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)


Abstract
Quantum mechanical effects have enabled the construction of cryptographic primitives that are impossible classically. For example, quantum copy-protection allows for a program to be encoded in a quantum state in such a way that the program can be evaluated, but not copied. Many of these cryptographic primitives are two-party protocols, where one party, Bob, has full quantum computational capabilities, and the other party, Alice, is only required to send random BB84 states to Bob. In this work, we show how such protocols can generically be converted to ones where Alice is fully classical, assuming that Bob cannot efficiently solve the LWE problem. In particular, this means that all communication between (classical) Alice and (quantum) Bob is classical, yet they can still make use of cryptographic primitives that would be impossible if both parties were classical. We apply this conversion procedure to obtain quantum cryptographic protocols with classical communication for unclonable encryption, copy-protection, computing on encrypted data, and verifiable blind delegated computation. The key technical ingredient for our result is a protocol for classically-instructed parallel remote state preparation of BB84 states. This is a multi-round protocol between (classical) Alice and (quantum polynomial-time) Bob that allows Alice to certify that Bob must have prepared n uniformly random BB84 states (up to a change of basis on his space). While previous approaches could only certify one- or two-qubit states, our protocol allows for the certification of an n-fold tensor product of BB84 states. Furthermore, Alice knows which specific BB84 states Bob has prepared, while Bob himself does not. Hence, the situation at the end of this protocol is (almost) equivalent to one where Alice sent n random BB84 states to Bob. This allows us to replace the step of preparing and sending BB84 states in existing protocols by our remote-state preparation protocol in a generic and modular way.

Cite as

Alexandru Gheorghiu, Tony Metger, and Alexander Poremba. Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 67:1-67:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)


Copy BibTex To Clipboard

@InProceedings{gheorghiu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67,
  author =	{Gheorghiu, Alexandru and Metger, Tony and Poremba, Alexander},
  title =	{{Quantum Cryptography with Classical Communication: Parallel Remote State Preparation for Copy-Protection, Verification, and More}},
  booktitle =	{50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)},
  pages =	{67:1--67:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-278-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2023},
  volume =	{261},
  editor =	{Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181197},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.67},
  annote =	{Keywords: Quantum cryptography, Remote state preparation, Self-testing, Learning with errors, Quantum copy-protection, Unclonable encryption, Quantum verification}
}
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