Fine-Grained Completeness for Optimization in P

Authors Karl Bringmann, Alejandro Cassis, Nick Fischer, Marvin Künnemann



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Karl Bringmann
  • Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany
  • Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany
Alejandro Cassis
  • Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany
  • Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany
Nick Fischer
  • Saarland University, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany
  • Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Saarland Informatics Campus, Saarbrücken, Germany
Marvin Künnemann
  • Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

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Karl Bringmann, Alejandro Cassis, Nick Fischer, and Marvin Künnemann. Fine-Grained Completeness for Optimization in P. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 9:1-9:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.9

Abstract

We initiate the study of fine-grained completeness theorems for exact and approximate optimization in the polynomial-time regime. Inspired by the first completeness results for decision problems in P (Gao, Impagliazzo, Kolokolova, Williams, TALG 2019) as well as the classic class MaxSNP and MaxSNP-completeness for NP optimization problems (Papadimitriou, Yannakakis, JCSS 1991), we define polynomial-time analogues MaxSP and MinSP, which contain a number of natural optimization problems in P, including Maximum Inner Product, general forms of nearest neighbor search and optimization variants of the k-XOR problem. Specifically, we define MaxSP as the class of problems definable as max_{x₁,… ,x_k} #{(y₁,… ,y_𝓁) : ϕ(x₁,… ,x_k, y₁,… ,y_𝓁)}, where ϕ is a quantifier-free first-order property over a given relational structure (with MinSP defined analogously). On m-sized structures, we can solve each such problem in time O(m^{k+𝓁-1}). Our results are: - We determine (a sparse variant of) the Maximum/Minimum Inner Product problem as complete under deterministic fine-grained reductions: A strongly subquadratic algorithm for Maximum/Minimum Inner Product would beat the baseline running time of O(m^{k+𝓁-1}) for all problems in MaxSP/MinSP by a polynomial factor. - This completeness transfers to approximation: Maximum/Minimum Inner Product is also complete in the sense that a strongly subquadratic c-approximation would give a (c+ε)-approximation for all MaxSP/MinSP problems in time O(m^{k+𝓁-1-δ}), where ε > 0 can be chosen arbitrarily small. Combining our completeness with (Chen, Williams, SODA 2019), we obtain the perhaps surprising consequence that refuting the OV Hypothesis is equivalent to giving a O(1)-approximation for all MinSP problems in faster-than-O(m^{k+𝓁-1}) time. - By fine-tuning our reductions, we obtain mild algorithmic improvements for solving and approximating all problems in MaxSP and MinSP, using the fastest known algorithms for Maximum/Minimum Inner Product.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Problems, reductions and completeness
Keywords
  • Fine-grained Complexity & Algorithm Design
  • Completeness
  • Hardness of Approximation in P
  • Dimensionality Reductions

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