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How Hard is it to Find (Honest) Witnesses?

Authors Isaac Goldstein, Tsvi Kopelowitz, Moshe Lewenstein, Ely Porat



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Isaac Goldstein
Tsvi Kopelowitz
Moshe Lewenstein
Ely Porat

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Isaac Goldstein, Tsvi Kopelowitz, Moshe Lewenstein, and Ely Porat. How Hard is it to Find (Honest) Witnesses?. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 45:1-45:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.45

Abstract

In recent years much effort has been put into developing polynomial-time conditional lower bounds for algorithms and data structures in both static and dynamic settings. Along these lines we introduce a framework for proving conditional lower bounds based on the well-known 3SUM conjecture. Our framework creates a compact representation of an instance of the 3SUM problem using hashing and domain specific encoding. This compact representation admits false solutions to the original 3SUM problem instance which we reveal and eliminate until we find a true solution. In other words, from all witnesses (candidate solutions) we figure out if an honest one (a true solution) exists. This enumeration of witnesses is used to prove conditional lower bounds on reporting problems that generate all witnesses. In turn, these reporting problems are then reduced to various decision problems using special search data structures which are able to enumerate the witnesses while only using solutions to decision variants. Hence, 3SUM-hardness of the decision problems is deduced. We utilize this framework to show conditional lower bounds for several variants of convolutions, matrix multiplication and string problems. Our framework uses a strong connection between all of these problems and the ability to find witnesses. Specifically, we prove conditional lower bounds for computing partial outputs of convolutions and matrix multiplication for sparse inputs. These problems are inspired by the open question raised by Muthukrishnan 20 years ago. The lower bounds we show rule out the possibility (unless the 3SUM conjecture is false) that almost linear time solutions to sparse input-output convolutions or matrix multiplications exist. This is in contrast to standard convolutions and matrix multiplications that have, or assumed to have, almost linear solutions. Moreover, we improve upon the conditional lower bounds of Amir et al. for histogram indexing, a problem that has been of much interest recently. The conditional lower bounds we show apply for both reporting and decision variants. For the well-studied decision variant, we show a full tradeoff between preprocessing and query time for every alphabet size > 2. At an extreme, this implies that no solution to this problem exists with subquadratic preprocessing time and ~O(1) query time for every alphabet size > 2, unless the 3SUM conjecture is false. This is in contrast to a recent result by Chan and Lewenstein for a binary alphabet. While these specific applications are used to demonstrate the techniques of our framework, we believe that this novel framework is useful for many other problems as well.
Keywords
  • 3SUM
  • convolutions
  • matrix multiplication
  • histogram indexing

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