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# Logarithmic Weisfeiler-Leman Identifies All Planar Graphs

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## Cite As

Martin Grohe and Sandra Kiefer. Logarithmic Weisfeiler-Leman Identifies All Planar Graphs. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 134:1-134:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.134

## Abstract

The Weisfeiler-Leman (WL) algorithm is a well-known combinatorial procedure for detecting symmetries in graphs and it is widely used in graph-isomorphism tests. It proceeds by iteratively refining a colouring of vertex tuples. The number of iterations needed to obtain the final output is crucial for the parallelisability of the algorithm. We show that there is a constant k such that every planar graph can be identified (that is, distinguished from every non-isomorphic graph) by the k-dimensional WL algorithm within a logarithmic number of iterations. This generalises a result due to Verbitsky (STACS 2007), who proved the same for 3-connected planar graphs. The number of iterations needed by the k-dimensional WL algorithm to identify a graph corresponds to the quantifier depth of a sentence that defines the graph in the (k+1)-variable fragment C^{k+1} of first-order logic with counting quantifiers. Thus, our result implies that every planar graph is definable with a C^{k+1}-sentence of logarithmic quantifier depth.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Finite Model Theory
• Mathematics of computing → Graph theory
##### Keywords
• Weisfeiler-Leman algorithm
• finite-variable logic
• isomorphism testing
• planar graphs
• quantifier depth
• iteration number

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## References

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