Polynomial Time Algorithm for ARRIVAL on Tree-Like Multigraphs

Authors David Auger , Pierre Coucheney, Loric Duhazé

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Author Details

David Auger
  • DAVID Lab.,UVSQ, Université Paris Saclay, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78000, Versailles, France
Pierre Coucheney
  • DAVID Lab.,UVSQ, Université Paris Saclay, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78000, Versailles, France
Loric Duhazé
  • DAVID Lab., UVSQ, Université Paris Saclay, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78000, Versailles, France
  • LISN, Université Paris Saclay, France


We want to thank Johanne Cohen for her advises and attentive review.

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David Auger, Pierre Coucheney, and Loric Duhazé. Polynomial Time Algorithm for ARRIVAL on Tree-Like Multigraphs. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 12:1-12:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


A rotor walk in a directed graph can be thought of as a deterministic version of a Markov Chain, where a pebble moves from vertex to vertex following a simple rule until a terminal vertex, or sink, has been reached. The ARRIVAL problem, as defined by Dohrau et al. [Dohrau et al., 2017], consists in determining which sink will be reached. While the walk itself can take an exponential number of steps, this problem belongs to the complexity class NP ∩ co-NP without being known to be in P. In this work, we define a class of directed graphs, namely tree-like multigraphs, which are multigraphs having the global shape of an undirected tree. We prove that in this class, ARRIVAL can be solved in almost linear time, while the number of steps of a rotor walk can still be exponential. Then, we give an application of this result to solve some deterministic analogs of stochastic models (e.g., Markovian decision processes, Stochastic Games).

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Mathematics of computing
  • Rotor-routing
  • Rotor Walk
  • Reachability Problem
  • Game Theory
  • Tree-like Multigraph


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