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# Monoids of Upper Triangular Matrices over the Boolean Semiring

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LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.81.pdf
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## Acknowledgements

We thank anonymous reviewers for their comments that improved the content and presentation of the paper.

## Cite As

Andrew Ryzhikov and Petra Wolf. Monoids of Upper Triangular Matrices over the Boolean Semiring. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 81:1-81:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)
https://doi.org/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.81

## Abstract

Given a finite set 𝒜 of square matrices and a square matrix B, all of the same dimension, the membership problem asks if B belongs to the monoid ℳ(𝒜) generated by 𝒜. The rank one problem asks if there is a matrix of rank one in ℳ(𝒜). We study the membership and the rank one problems in the case where all matrices are upper triangular matrices over the Boolean semiring. We characterize the computational complexity of these problems, and identify their PSPACE-complete and NP-complete special cases. We then consider, for a set 𝒜 of matrices from the same class, the problem of finding in ℳ(𝒜) a matrix of minimum rank with no zero rows. We show that the minimum rank of such matrix can be computed in linear time.We also characterize the space complexity of this problem depending on the size of 𝒜, and apply all these results to the ergodicity problem asking if ℳ(𝒜) contains a matrix with a column consisting of all ones. Finally, we show that our results give better upper bounds for the case where each row of every matrix in 𝒜 contains at most one non-zero entry than for the general case.

## Subject Classification

##### ACM Subject Classification
• Theory of computation → Formal languages and automata theory
##### Keywords
• matrix monoids
• membership
• rank
• ergodicity
• partially ordered automata

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