License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license (CC BY 3.0)
When quoting this document, please refer to the following
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2019.6
URN: urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107431
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Casini, Daniel ; Blaß, Tobias ; Lütkebohle, Ingo ; Brandenburg, Björn B.

Response-Time Analysis of ROS 2 Processing Chains Under Reservation-Based Scheduling

LIPIcs-ECRTS-2019-6.pdf (2 MB)


Bounding the end-to-end latency of processing chains in distributed real-time systems is a well-studied problem, relevant in multiple industrial fields, such as automotive systems and robotics. Nonetheless, to date, only little attention has been given to the study of the impact that specific frameworks and implementation choices have on real-time performance. This paper proposes a scheduling model and a response-time analysis for ROS 2 (specifically, version "Crystal Clemmys" released in December 2018), a popular framework for the rapid prototyping, development, and deployment of robotics applications with thousands of professional users around the world. The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, it is aimed at providing to robotic engineers a practical analysis to bound the worst-case response times of their applications. Secondly, it shines a light on current ROS 2 implementation choices from a real-time perspective. Finally, it presents a realistic real-time scheduling model, which provides an opportunity for future impact on the robotics industry.

BibTeX - Entry

  author =	{Daniel Casini and Tobias Bla{\ss} and Ingo L{\"u}tkebohle and Bj{\"o}rn B. Brandenburg},
  title =	{{Response-Time Analysis of ROS 2 Processing Chains Under Reservation-Based Scheduling}},
  booktitle =	{31st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2019)},
  pages =	{6:1--6:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-110-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{133},
  editor =	{Sophie Quinton},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl--Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-107431},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ECRTS.2019.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: ROS, real-time systems, response-time analysis, robotics, resource reservation}

Keywords: ROS, real-time systems, response-time analysis, robotics, resource reservation
Collection: 31st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems (ECRTS 2019)
Issue Date: 2019
Date of publication: 02.07.2019
Supplementary Material: ECRTS 2019 Artifact Evaluation approved artifact available at; The associated source code is available at

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