Abstract
We revisit classical connectivity problems in the {CONGEST} model of distributed computing. By using techniques from fault tolerant network design, we show improved constructions, some of which are even "local" (i.e., with O~(1) rounds) for problems that are closely related to hard global problems (i.e., with a lower bound of Omega(Diam+sqrt{n}) rounds).
Distributed Minimum Cut: Nanongkai and Su presented a randomized algorithm for computing a (1+epsilon)approximation of the minimum cut using O~(D +sqrt{n}) rounds where D is the diameter of the graph. For a sufficiently large minimum cut lambda=Omega(sqrt{n}), this is tight due to Das Sarma et al. [FOCS '11], Ghaffari and Kuhn [DISC '13].
 Small Cuts: A special setting that remains open is where the graph connectivity lambda is small (i.e., constant). The only lower bound for this case is Omega(D), with a matching bound known only for lambda <= 2 due to Pritchard and Thurimella [TALG '11]. Recently, Daga, Henzinger, Nanongkai and Saranurak [STOC '19] raised the open problem of computing the minimum cut in poly(D) rounds for any lambda=O(1). In this paper, we resolve this problem by presenting a surprisingly simple algorithm, that takes a completely different approach than the existing algorithms. Our algorithm has also the benefit that it computes all minimum cuts in the graph, and naturally extends to vertex cuts as well. At the heart of the algorithm is a graph sampling approach usually used in the context of fault tolerant (FT) design.
 Deterministic Algorithms: While the existing distributed minimum cut algorithms are randomized, our algorithm can be made deterministic within the same round complexity. To obtain this, we introduce a novel definition of universal sets along with their efficient computation. This allows us to derandomize the FT graph sampling technique, which might be of independent interest.
 Computation of all Edge Connectivities: We also consider the more general task of computing the edge connectivity of all the edges in the graph. In the output format, it is required that the endpoints u,v of every edge (u,v) learn the cardinality of the uv cut in the graph. We provide the first sublinear algorithm for this problem for the case of constant connectivity values. Specifically, by using the recent notion of lowcongestion cycle cover, combined with the sampling technique, we compute all edge connectivities in poly(D) * 2^{O(sqrt{log n log log n})} rounds.
Sparse Certificates: For an nvertex graph G and an integer lambda, a lambdasparse certificate H is a subgraph H subseteq G with O(lambda n) edges which is lambdaconnected iff G is lambdaconnected. For Ddiameter graphs, constructions of sparse certificates for lambda in {2,3} have been provided by Thurimella [J. Alg. '97] and Dori [PODC '18] respectively using O~(D) number of rounds. The problem of devising such certificates with o(D+sqrt{n}) rounds was left open by Dori [PODC '18] for any lambda >= 4. Using connections to fault tolerant spanners, we considerably improve the round complexity for any lambda in [1,n] and epsilon in (0,1), by showing a construction of (1epsilon)lambdasparse certificates with O(lambda n) edges using only O(1/epsilon^2 * log^{2+o(1)} n) rounds.
BibTeX  Entry
@InProceedings{parter:LIPIcs:2019:11337,
author = {Merav Parter},
title = {{Small Cuts and Connectivity Certificates: A Fault Tolerant Approach}},
booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)},
pages = {30:130:16},
series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
ISBN = {9783959771269},
ISSN = {18688969},
year = {2019},
volume = {146},
editor = {Jukka Suomela},
publisher = {Schloss DagstuhlLeibnizZentrum fuer Informatik},
address = {Dagstuhl, Germany},
URL = {http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2019/11337},
URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030drops113371},
doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.30},
annote = {Keywords: Connectivity, Minimum Cut, Spanners}
}
Keywords: 

Connectivity, Minimum Cut, Spanners 
Seminar: 

33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019) 
Issue Date: 

2019 
Date of publication: 

11.10.2019 