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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

We establish new separations between the power of monotone and general (non-monotone) Boolean circuits:
- For every k ≥ 1, there is a monotone function in AC⁰ (constant-depth poly-size circuits) that requires monotone circuits of depth Ω(log^k n). This significantly extends a classical result of Okol'nishnikova [Okol'nishnikova, 1982] and Ajtai and Gurevich [Ajtai and Gurevich, 1987]. In addition, our separation holds for a monotone graph property, which was unknown even in the context of AC⁰ versus mAC⁰.
- For every k ≥ 1, there is a monotone function in AC⁰[⊕] (constant-depth poly-size circuits extended with parity gates) that requires monotone circuits of size exp(Ω(log^k n)). This makes progress towards a question posed by Grigni and Sipser [Grigni and Sipser, 1992]. These results show that constant-depth circuits can be more efficient than monotone formulas and monotone circuits when computing monotone functions.
In the opposite direction, we observe that non-trivial simulations are possible in the absence of parity gates: every monotone function computed by an AC⁰ circuit of size s and depth d can be computed by a monotone circuit of size 2^{n - n/O(log s)^{d-1}}. We show that the existence of significantly faster monotone simulations would lead to breakthrough circuit lower bounds. In particular, if every monotone function in AC⁰ admits a polynomial size monotone circuit, then NC² is not contained in NC¹.
Finally, we revisit our separation result against monotone circuit size and investigate the limits of our approach, which is based on a monotone lower bound for constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) established by Göös, Kamath, Robere and Sokolov [Göös et al., 2019] via lifting techniques. Adapting results of Schaefer [Thomas J. Schaefer, 1978] and Allender, Bauland, Immerman, Schnoor and Vollmer [Eric Allender et al., 2009], we obtain an unconditional classification of the monotone circuit complexity of Boolean-valued CSPs via their polymorphisms. This result and the consequences we derive from it might be of independent interest.

Bruno P. Cavalar and Igor C. Oliveira. Constant-Depth Circuits vs. Monotone Circuits. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 29:1-29:37, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{cavalar_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.29, author = {Cavalar, Bruno P. and Oliveira, Igor C.}, title = {{Constant-Depth Circuits vs. Monotone Circuits}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {29:1--29:37}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182998}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.29}, annote = {Keywords: circuit complexity, monotone circuit complexity, bounded-depth circuis, constraint-satisfaction problems} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

Comparator circuits are a natural circuit model for studying bounded fan-out computation whose power sits between nondeterministic branching programs and general circuits. Despite having been studied for nearly three decades, the first superlinear lower bound against comparator circuits was proved only recently by Gál and Robere (ITCS 2020), who established a Ω((n/log n)^{1.5}) lower bound on the size of comparator circuits computing an explicit function of n bits.
In this paper, we initiate the study of average-case complexity and circuit analysis algorithms for comparator circuits. Departing from previous approaches, we exploit the technique of shrinkage under random restrictions to obtain a variety of new results for this model. Among them, we show
- Average-case Lower Bounds. For every k = k(n) with k ≥ log n, there exists a polynomial-time computable function f_k on n bits such that, for every comparator circuit C with at most n^{1.5}/O(k⋅ √{log n}) gates, we have
Pr_{x ∈ {0,1}ⁿ} [C(x) = f_k(x)] ≤ 1/2 + 1/{2^{Ω(k)}}.
This average-case lower bound matches the worst-case lower bound of Gál and Robere by letting k = O(log n).
- #SAT Algorithms. There is an algorithm that counts the number of satisfying assignments of a given comparator circuit with at most n^{1.5}/O (k⋅ √{log n}) gates, in time 2^{n-k} · poly(n), for any k ≤ n/4. The running time is non-trivial (i.e., 2ⁿ/n^{ω(1)}) when k = ω(log n).
- Pseudorandom Generators and MCSP Lower Bounds. There is a pseudorandom generator of seed length s^{2/3+o(1)} that fools comparator circuits with s gates. Also, using this PRG, we obtain an n^{1.5-o(1)} lower bound for MCSP against comparator circuits.

Bruno P. Cavalar and Zhenjian Lu. Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Comparator Circuits from Shrinkage. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 34:1-34:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{cavalar_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.34, author = {Cavalar, Bruno P. and Lu, Zhenjian}, title = {{Algorithms and Lower Bounds for Comparator Circuits from Shrinkage}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {34:1--34:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156303}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.34}, annote = {Keywords: comparator circuits, average-case complexity, satisfiability algorithms, pseudorandom generators} }

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