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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

We study zombies and survivor, a variant of the game of cops and robber on graphs. In this variant, the single survivor plays the role of the robber and attempts to escape from the zombies that play the role of the cops. The zombies are restricted, on their turn, to always follow an edge of a shortest path towards the survivor. Let z(G) be the smallest number of zombies required to catch the survivor on a graph G with n vertices. We show that there exist outerplanar graphs and visibility graphs of simple polygons such that z(G) = Θ(n). We also show that there exist maximum-degree-3 outerplanar graphs such that z(G) = Ω(n/log(n)).
Let z_L(G) be the smallest number of lazy zombies (zombies that can stay still on their turn) required to catch the survivor on a graph G. We show that lazy zombies are more powerful than normal zombies but less powerful than cops. We prove that z_L(G) ≤ 2 for connected outerplanar graphs and this bound is tight in the worst case. We show that z_L(G) ≤ k for connected graphs with treedepth k. This result implies that z_L(G) is at most (k+1)log n for connected graphs with treewidth k, O(√n) for connected planar graphs, O(√{gn}) for connected graphs with genus g and O(h√{hn}) for connected graphs with any excluded h-vertex minor. Our results on lazy zombies still hold when an adversary chooses the initial positions of the zombies.

Prosenjit Bose, Jean-Lou De Carufel, and Thomas Shermer. Pursuit-Evasion in Graphs: Zombies, Lazy Zombies and a Survivor. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 56:1-56:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bose_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.56, author = {Bose, Prosenjit and De Carufel, Jean-Lou and Shermer, Thomas}, title = {{Pursuit-Evasion in Graphs: Zombies, Lazy Zombies and a Survivor}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {56:1--56:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173418}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.56}, annote = {Keywords: Pursuit-evasion games, Outerplanar, Graphs, Treedepth, Treewidth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 129, 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)

We study several problems concerning convex polygons whose vertices lie in a Cartesian product of two sets of n real numbers (for short, grid). First, we prove that every such grid contains a convex polygon with Omega(log n) vertices and that this bound is tight up to a constant factor. We generalize this result to d dimensions (for a fixed d in N), and obtain a tight lower bound of Omega(log^{d-1}n) for the maximum number of points in convex position in a d-dimensional grid. Second, we present polynomial-time algorithms for computing the longest convex polygonal chain in a grid that contains no two points with the same x- or y-coordinate. We show that the maximum size of such a convex polygon can be efficiently approximated up to a factor of 2. Finally, we present exponential bounds on the maximum number of convex polygons in these grids, and for some restricted variants. These bounds are tight up to polynomial factors.

Jean-Lou De Carufel, Adrian Dumitrescu, Wouter Meulemans, Tim Ophelders, Claire Pennarun, Csaba D. Tóth, and Sander Verdonschot. Convex Polygons in Cartesian Products. In 35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 129, pp. 22:1-22:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{decarufel_et_al:LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.22, author = {De Carufel, Jean-Lou and Dumitrescu, Adrian and Meulemans, Wouter and Ophelders, Tim and Pennarun, Claire and T\'{o}th, Csaba D. and Verdonschot, Sander}, title = {{Convex Polygons in Cartesian Products}}, booktitle = {35th International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2019)}, pages = {22:1--22:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-104-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {129}, editor = {Barequet, Gill and Wang, Yusu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104267}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SoCG.2019.22}, annote = {Keywords: Erd\H{o}s-Szekeres theorem, Cartesian product, convexity, polyhedron, recursive construction, approximation algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

A geometric graph G=(P,E) is a set of points in the plane and edges between pairs of points, where the weight of an edge is equal to the Euclidean distance between its two endpoints. In local routing we find a path through G from a source vertex s to a destination vertex t, using only knowledge of the current vertex, its incident edges, and the locations of s and t. We present an algorithm for local routing on the Delaunay triangulation, and show that it finds a path between a source vertex s and a target vertex t that is not longer than 3.56|st|, improving the previous bound of 5.9|st|.

Nicolas Bonichon, Prosenjit Bose, Jean-Lou De Carufel, Vincent Despré, Darryl Hill, and Michiel Smid. Improved Routing on the Delaunay Triangulation. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 22:1-22:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bonichon_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.22, author = {Bonichon, Nicolas and Bose, Prosenjit and De Carufel, Jean-Lou and Despr\'{e}, Vincent and Hill, Darryl and Smid, Michiel}, title = {{Improved Routing on the Delaunay Triangulation}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {22:1--22:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94857}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.22}, annote = {Keywords: Delaunay, local routing, geometric, graph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 64, 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)

Let S be a finite set of points in the plane that are in convex position. We present an algorithm that constructs a plane frac{3+4 pi}{3}-spanner of S whose vertex degree is at most 3. Let Lambda be the vertex set of a finite non-uniform rectangular lattice in the plane. We present an algorithm that constructs a plane 3 sqrt{2}-spanner for Lambda whose vertex degree is at most 3. For points that are in the plane and in general position, we show how to compute plane degree-3 spanners with a linear number of Steiner points.

Ahmad Biniaz, Prosenjit Bose, Jean-Lou De Carufel, Cyril Gavoille, Anil Maheshwari, and Michiel Smid. Towards Plane Spanners of Degree 3. In 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 64, pp. 19:1-19:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{biniaz_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.19, author = {Biniaz, Ahmad and Bose, Prosenjit and De Carufel, Jean-Lou and Gavoille, Cyril and Maheshwari, Anil and Smid, Michiel}, title = {{Towards Plane Spanners of Degree 3}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)}, pages = {19:1--19:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-026-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {64}, editor = {Hong, Seok-Hee}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-67887}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.19}, annote = {Keywords: plane spanners, degree-3 spanners, convex position, non-uniform lattice} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

We show that for any set of n moving points in R^d and any parameter 2<=k<n, one can select a fixed non-empty subset of the points of size O(k log k), such that the Voronoi diagram of this subset is "balanced" at any given time (i.e., it contains O(n/k) points per cell). We also show that the bound O(k log k) is near optimal even for the one dimensional case in which points move linearly in time. As an application, we show that one can assign communication radii to the sensors of a network of $n$ moving sensors so that at any given time, their interference is O( (n log n)^0.5). This is optimal up to an O((log n)^0.5) factor.

Jean-Lou De Carufel, Matthew J. Katz, Matias Korman, André van Renssen, Marcel Roeloffzen, and Shakhar Smorodinsky. On Interference Among Moving Sensors and Related Problems. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 34:1-34:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{decarufel_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.34, author = {De Carufel, Jean-Lou and Katz, Matthew J. and Korman, Matias and van Renssen, Andr\'{e} and Roeloffzen, Marcel and Smorodinsky, Shakhar}, title = {{On Interference Among Moving Sensors and Related Problems}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {34:1--34:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.34}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63850}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.34}, annote = {Keywords: Range spaces, Voronoi diagrams, moving points, facility location, interference minimization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 53, 15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016)

Let S be a set of n points in the plane that is in convex position. For a real number t>1, we say that a point p in S is t-good if for every point q of S, the shortest-path distance between p and q along the boundary of the convex hull of S is at most t times the Euclidean distance between p and q. We prove that any point that is part of (an approximation to) the diameter of S is 1.88-good. Using this, we show how to compute a plane 1.88-spanner of S in O(n) time, assuming that the points of S are given in sorted order along their convex hull. Previously, the best known stretch factor for plane spanners was 1.998 (which, in fact, holds for any point set, i.e., even if it is not in convex position).

Mahdi Amani, Ahmad Biniaz, Prosenjit Bose, Jean-Lou De Carufel, Anil Maheshwari, and Michiel Smid. A Plane 1.88-Spanner for Points in Convex Position. In 15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 53, pp. 25:1-25:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{amani_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.25, author = {Amani, Mahdi and Biniaz, Ahmad and Bose, Prosenjit and De Carufel, Jean-Lou and Maheshwari, Anil and Smid, Michiel}, title = {{A Plane 1.88-Spanner for Points in Convex Position}}, booktitle = {15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016)}, pages = {25:1--25:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-011-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {53}, editor = {Pagh, Rasmus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-60474}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.25}, annote = {Keywords: points in convex position, plane spanner} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 53, 15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016)

We seek to augment a geometric network in the Euclidean plane with shortcuts to minimize its continuous diameter, i.e., the largest network distance between any two points on the augmented network. Unlike in the discrete setting where a shortcut connects two vertices and the diameter is measured between vertices, we take all points along the edges of the network into account when placing a shortcut and when measuring distances in the augmented network.
We study this network augmentation problem for paths and cycles. For paths, we determine an optimal shortcut in linear time. For cycles, we show that a single shortcut never decreases the continuous diameter and that two shortcuts always suffice to reduce the continuous diameter. Furthermore, we characterize optimal pairs of shortcuts for convex and non-convex cycles. Finally, we develop a linear time algorithm that produces an optimal pair of shortcuts for convex cycles. Apart from the algorithms, our results extend to rectifiable curves.
Our work reveals some of the underlying challenges that must be overcome when addressing the discrete version of this network augmentation problem, where we minimize the discrete diameter of a network with shortcuts that connect only vertices.

Jean-Lou De Carufel, Carsten Grimm, Anil Maheshwari, and Michiel Smid. Minimizing the Continuous Diameter when Augmenting Paths and Cycles with Shortcuts. In 15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 53, pp. 27:1-27:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{decarufel_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.27, author = {De Carufel, Jean-Lou and Grimm, Carsten and Maheshwari, Anil and Smid, Michiel}, title = {{Minimizing the Continuous Diameter when Augmenting Paths and Cycles with Shortcuts}}, booktitle = {15th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2016)}, pages = {27:1--27:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-011-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {53}, editor = {Pagh, Rasmus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-60492}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2016.27}, annote = {Keywords: Network Augmentation, Shortcuts, Diameter, Paths, Cycles} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)

Let P be a closed simple polygon with n vertices. For any two points in P, the geodesic distance between them is the length of the shortest path that connects them among all paths contained in P. The geodesic center of P is the unique point in P that minimizes the largest geodesic distance to all other points of P. In 1989, Pollack, Sharir and Rote [Disc. & Comput. Geom. 89] showed an O(n log n)-time algorithm that computes the geodesic center of P. Since then, a longstanding question has been whether this running time can be improved (explicitly posed by Mitchell [Handbook of Computational Geometry, 2000]). In this paper we affirmatively answer this question and present a linear time algorithm to solve this problem.

Hee Kap Ahn, Luis Barba, Prosenjit Bose, Jean-Lou De Carufel, Matias Korman, and Eunjin Oh. A Linear-Time Algorithm for the Geodesic Center of a Simple Polygon. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 209-223, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{ahn_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.209, author = {Ahn, Hee Kap and Barba, Luis and Bose, Prosenjit and De Carufel, Jean-Lou and Korman, Matias and Oh, Eunjin}, title = {{A Linear-Time Algorithm for the Geodesic Center of a Simple Polygon}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)}, pages = {209--223}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-83-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {34}, editor = {Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.209}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-51448}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.209}, annote = {Keywords: Geodesic distance, facility location, 1-center problem, simple polygons} }

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