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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 217, 25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021)

In distributed verification, our goal is to verify that the network configuration satisfies some desired property, using pre-computed information stored at each network node. This is formally modeled as a proof labeling scheme (PLS): a prover assigns to each node a certificate, and then the nodes exchange their certificates with their neighbors and decide whether to accept or reject the configuration. Subsequent work has shown that in some specific cases, allowing more rounds of communication - so that nodes can communicate further across the network - can yield shorter certificates, trading off the space required to store the certificate against the time required for verification. Such tradeoffs were previously known for trees, cycles, and grids, or for proof labeling schemes where all nodes receive the same certificate.
In this work we show that in large classes of graphs, every one-round PLS can be transformed into a multi-round PLS with shorter certificates. We give two constructions: given a 1-round PLS with certificates of 𝓁 bits, in graphs families with balanced edge separators of size s(n), we construct a t-round PLS with certificates of size Õ(𝓁 ⋅ s(n) / t), and in graph families with an excluded minor and maximum degree Δ, we construct a t-round PLS with certificates of size Õ(𝓁 ⋅ Δ / √t). Our constructions are explicit, and we use erasure codes to exploit the larger neighborhood viewed by each node in a t-round PLS.

Orr Fischer, Rotem Oshman, and Dana Shamir. Explicit Space-Time Tradeoffs for Proof Labeling Schemes in Graphs with Small Separators. In 25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 217, pp. 21:1-21:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{fischer_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.21, author = {Fischer, Orr and Oshman, Rotem and Shamir, Dana}, title = {{Explicit Space-Time Tradeoffs for Proof Labeling Schemes in Graphs with Small Separators}}, booktitle = {25th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2021)}, pages = {21:1--21:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-219-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {217}, editor = {Bramas, Quentin and Gramoli, Vincent and Milani, Alessia}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-157969}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2021.21}, annote = {Keywords: proof-labeling schemes, space-time tradeoffs, families with excluded minor} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

The possibilities offered by quantum computing have drawn attention in the distributed computing community recently, with several breakthrough results showing quantum distributed algorithms that run faster than the fastest known classical counterparts, and even separations between the two models. A prime example is the result by Izumi, Le Gall, and Magniez [STACS 2020], who showed that triangle detection by quantum distributed algorithms is easier than triangle listing, while an analogous result is not known in the classical case.
In this paper we present a framework for fast quantum distributed clique detection. This improves upon the state-of-the-art for the triangle case, and is also more general, applying to larger clique sizes.
Our main technical contribution is a new approach for detecting cliques by encapsulating this as a search task for nodes that can be added to smaller cliques. To extract the best complexities out of our approach, we develop a framework for nested distributed quantum searches, which employ checking procedures that are quantum themselves.
Moreover, we show a circuit-complexity barrier on proving a lower bound of the form Ω(n^{3/5+ε}) for K_p-detection for any p ≥ 4, even in the classical (non-quantum) distributed CONGEST setting.

Keren Censor-Hillel, Orr Fischer, François Le Gall, Dean Leitersdorf, and Rotem Oshman. Quantum Distributed Algorithms for Detection of Cliques. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 35:1-35:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{censorhillel_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.35, author = {Censor-Hillel, Keren and Fischer, Orr and Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Leitersdorf, Dean and Oshman, Rotem}, title = {{Quantum Distributed Algorithms for Detection of Cliques}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {35:1--35:25}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156319}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.35}, annote = {Keywords: distributed graph algorithms, quantum algorithms, cycles, cliques, Congested Clique, CONGEST} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

In this paper we give fast distributed graph algorithms for detecting and listing small subgraphs, and for computing or approximating the girth. Our algorithms improve upon the state of the art by polynomial factors, and for girth, we obtain a constant-time algorithm for additive +1 approximation in Congested Clique, and the first parametrized algorithm for exact computation in Congest.
In the Congested Clique model, we first develop a technique for learning small neighborhoods, and apply it to obtain an O(1)-round algorithm that computes the girth with only an additive +1 error. Next, we introduce a new technique (the partition tree technique) allowing for efficiently listing all copies of any subgraph, which is deterministic and improves upon the state-of the-art for non-dense graphs. We give two concrete applications of the partition tree technique: First we show that for constant k, it is possible to solve C_{2k}-detection in O(1) rounds in the Congested Clique, improving on prior work, which used fast matrix multiplication and thus had polynomial round complexity. Second, we show that in triangle-free graphs, the girth can be exactly computed in time polynomially faster than the best known bounds for general graphs. We remark that no analogous result is currently known for sequential algorithms.
In the Congest model, we describe a new approach for finding cycles, and instantiate it in two ways: first, we show a fast parametrized algorithm for girth with round complexity Õ(min{g⋅ n^{1-1/Θ(g)},n}) for any girth g; and second, we show how to find small even-length cycles C_{2k} for k = 3,4,5 in O(n^{1-1/k}) rounds. This is a polynomial improvement upon the previous running times; for example, our C₆-detection algorithm runs in O(n^{2/3}) rounds, compared to O(n^{3/4}) in prior work. Finally, using our improved C₆-freeness algorithm, and the barrier on proving lower bounds on triangle-freeness of Eden et al., we show that improving the current ̃Ω(√n) lower bound for C₆-freeness of Korhonen et al. by any polynomial factor would imply strong circuit complexity lower bounds.

Keren Censor-Hillel, Orr Fischer, Tzlil Gonen, François Le Gall, Dean Leitersdorf, and Rotem Oshman. Fast Distributed Algorithms for Girth, Cycles and Small Subgraphs. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 33:1-33:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{censorhillel_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.33, author = {Censor-Hillel, Keren and Fischer, Orr and Gonen, Tzlil and Le Gall, Fran\c{c}ois and Leitersdorf, Dean and Oshman, Rotem}, title = {{Fast Distributed Algorithms for Girth, Cycles and Small Subgraphs}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {33:1--33:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131115}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.33}, annote = {Keywords: distributed graph algorithms, cycles, girth, Congested Clique, CONGEST} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)

In this paper we give sublinear-time distributed algorithms in the CONGEST model for subgraph detection for two classes of graphs: cliques and even-length cycles. We show for the first time that all copies of 4-cliques and 5-cliques in the network graph can be listed in sublinear time, O(n^{5/6+o(1)}) rounds and O(n^{21/22+o(1)}) rounds, respectively. Prior to our work, it was not known whether it was possible to even check if the network contains a 4-clique or a 5-clique in sublinear time.
For even-length cycles, C_{2k}, we give an improved sublinear-time algorithm, which exploits a new connection to extremal combinatorics. For example, for 6-cycles we improve the running time from O~(n^{5/6}) to O~(n^{3/4}) rounds. We also show two obstacles on proving lower bounds for C_{2k}-freeness: First, we use the new connection to extremal combinatorics to show that the current lower bound of Omega~(sqrt{n}) rounds for 6-cycle freeness cannot be improved using partition-based reductions from 2-party communication complexity, the technique by which all known lower bounds on subgraph detection have been proven to date. Second, we show that there is some fixed constant delta in (0,1/2) such that for any k, a Omega(n^{1/2+delta}) lower bound on C_{2k}-freeness implies new lower bounds in circuit complexity.
For general subgraphs, it was shown in [Orr Fischer et al., 2018] that for any fixed k, there exists a subgraph H of size k such that H-freeness requires Omega~(n^{2-Theta(1/k)}) rounds. It was left as an open problem whether this is tight, or whether some constant-sized subgraph requires truly quadratic time to detect. We show that in fact, for any subgraph H of constant size k, the H-freeness problem can be solved in O(n^{2 - Theta(1/k)}) rounds, nearly matching the lower bound of [Orr Fischer et al., 2018].

Talya Eden, Nimrod Fiat, Orr Fischer, Fabian Kuhn, and Rotem Oshman. Sublinear-Time Distributed Algorithms for Detecting Small Cliques and Even Cycles. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 15:1-15:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{eden_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.15, author = {Eden, Talya and Fiat, Nimrod and Fischer, Orr and Kuhn, Fabian and Oshman, Rotem}, title = {{Sublinear-Time Distributed Algorithms for Detecting Small Cliques and Even Cycles}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)}, pages = {15:1--15:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-126-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {146}, editor = {Suomela, Jukka}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113224}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.15}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Computing, Subgraph Freeness, CONGEST} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)

In the directed minimum spanning tree problem (DMST, also called minimum weight arborescence), the network is given a root node r, and needs to construct a minimum-weight directed spanning tree, rooted at r and oriented outwards. In this paper we present the first sub-quadratic DMST algorithms in the distributed CONGEST network model, where the messages exchanged between the network nodes are bounded in size. We consider three versions: a model where the communication links are bidirectional but can have different weights in the two directions; a model where communication is unidirectional; and the Congested Clique model, where all nodes can communicate directly with each other.
Our algorithm is based on a variant of Lovász' DMST algorithm for the PRAM model, and uses a distributed single-source shortest-path (SSSP) algorithm for directed graphs as a black box. In the bidirectional CONGEST model, our algorithm has roughly the same running time as the SSSP algorithm; using the state-of-the-art SSSP algorithm, we obtain a running time of O~(min(sqrt{nD},sqrt{n}D^{1/4} + n^{3/5} +D)) rounds for the bidirectional communication case.
For the unidirectional communication model we give an O~(n) algorithm, and show that it is nearly optimal. And finally, for the Congested Clique, our algorithm again matches the best known SSSP algorithm: it runs in O~(n^{1/3}) rounds.
On the negative side, we adapt an observation of Chechik in the sequential setting to show that in all three models, the DMST problem is at least as hard as the (s,t)-shortest path problem. Thus, in terms of round complexity, distributed DMST lies between single-source shortest path and (s,t)-shortest path.

Orr Fischer and Rotem Oshman. A Distributed Algorithm for Directed Minimum-Weight Spanning Tree. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 16:1-16:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{fischer_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.16, author = {Fischer, Orr and Oshman, Rotem}, title = {{A Distributed Algorithm for Directed Minimum-Weight Spanning Tree}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)}, pages = {16:1--16:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-126-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {146}, editor = {Suomela, Jukka}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113236}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.16}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Computing, Directed Minimum Spanning Tree, Minimum Arborescence, CONGEST} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 91, 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)

In this paper we present distributed property-testing algorithms for graph properties in the CONGEST model, with emphasis on testing subgraph-freeness. Testing a graph property P means distinguishing graphs G = (V,E) having property P from graphs that are epsilon-far from having it, meaning that epsilon|E| edges must be added or removed from G to obtain a graph satisfying P.
We present a series of results, including:
- Testing H-freeness in O(1/epsilon) rounds, for any constant-sized graph H containing an edge (u,v) such that any cycle in H contain either u or v (or both). This includes all connected graphs over five vertices except K_5. For triangles, we can do even better when epsilon is not too small.
- A deterministic CONGEST protocol determining whether a graph contains a given tree as a subgraph in constant time.
- For cliques K_s with s >= 5, we show that K_s-freeness can be tested in O(m^(1/2-1/(s-2)) epsilon^(-1/2-1/(s-2))) rounds, where m is the number of edges in the network graph.
- We describe a general procedure for converting epsilon-testers with f(D) rounds, where D denotes the diameter of the graph, to work in O((log n)/epsilon)+f((log n)/epsilon) rounds, where n is the number of processors of the network. We then apply this procedure to obtain an epsilon-tester for testing whether a graph is bipartite and testing whether a graph is cycle-free. Moreover, for cycle-freeness, we obtain a corrector of the graph that locally corrects the graph so that the corrected graph is acyclic. Note that, unlike a tester, a corrector needs to mend the graph in many places in the case that the graph is far from having the property.
These protocols extend and improve previous results of [Censor-Hillel et al. 2016] and [Fraigniaud et al. 2016].

Guy Even, Orr Fischer, Pierre Fraigniaud, Tzlil Gonen, Reut Levi, Moti Medina, Pedro Montealegre, Dennis Olivetti, Rotem Oshman, Ivan Rapaport, and Ioan Todinca. Three Notes on Distributed Property Testing. In 31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 91, pp. 15:1-15:30, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{even_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2017.15, author = {Even, Guy and Fischer, Orr and Fraigniaud, Pierre and Gonen, Tzlil and Levi, Reut and Medina, Moti and Montealegre, Pedro and Olivetti, Dennis and Oshman, Rotem and Rapaport, Ivan and Todinca, Ioan}, title = {{Three Notes on Distributed Property Testing}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2017)}, pages = {15:1--15:30}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-053-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {91}, editor = {Richa, Andr\'{e}a}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-79847}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2017.15}, annote = {Keywords: Property testing, Property correcting, Distributed algorithms, CONGEST model} }

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