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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 306, 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)

A path cover of a digraph is a collection of paths collectively containing its vertex set. A path cover with minimum cardinality for a directed acyclic graph can be found in polynomial time [Fulkerson, AMS'56; Cáceres et al., SODA'22]. Moreover, Dilworth’s celebrated theorem on chain coverings of partially ordered sets equivalently states that the minimum size of a path cover of a DAG is equal to the maximum size of a set of mutually unreachable vertices. In this paper, we examine how far these classic results can be extended to a dynamic setting.
A temporal digraph has an arc set that changes over discrete time-steps; if the underlying digraph is acyclic, then it is a temporal DAG. A temporal path is a directed path in the underlying digraph, such that the time-steps of arcs are strictly increasing along the path. Two temporal paths are temporally disjoint if they do not occupy any vertex at the same time. A temporal path cover is a collection 𝒞 of temporal paths that covers all vertices, and 𝒞 is temporally disjoint if all its temporal paths are pairwise temporally disjoint. We study the computational complexities of the problems of finding a minimum-size temporal (disjoint) path cover (denoted as Temporal Path Cover and Temporally Disjoint Path Cover).
On the negative side, we show that both Temporal Path Cover and Temporally Disjoint Path Cover are NP-hard even when the underlying DAG is planar, bipartite, subcubic, and there are only two arc-disjoint time-steps. Moreover, Temporally Disjoint Path Cover remains NP-hard even on temporal oriented trees. We also observe that natural temporal analogues of Dilworth’s theorem on these classes of temporal DAGs do not hold.
In contrast, we show that Temporal Path Cover is polynomial-time solvable on temporal oriented trees by a reduction to Clique Cover for (static undirected) weakly chordal graphs (a subclass of perfect graphs for which Clique Cover admits an efficient algorithm). This highlights an interesting algorithmic difference between the two problems. Although it is NP-hard on temporal oriented trees, Temporally Disjoint Path Cover becomes polynomial-time solvable on temporal oriented lines and temporal rooted directed trees.
Motivated by the hardness result on trees, we show that, in contrast, Temporal Path Cover admits an XP time algorithm with respect to parameter t_max + tw, where t_max is the maximum time-step and tw is the treewidth of the underlying static undirected graph; moreover, Temporally Disjoint Path Cover admits an FPT algorithm with respect to the same parameterization.

Dibyayan Chakraborty, Antoine Dailly, Florent Foucaud, and Ralf Klasing. Algorithms and Complexity for Path Covers of Temporal DAGs. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 38:1-38:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.38, author = {Chakraborty, Dibyayan and Dailly, Antoine and Foucaud, Florent and Klasing, Ralf}, title = {{Algorithms and Complexity for Path Covers of Temporal DAGs}}, booktitle = {49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)}, pages = {38:1--38:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-335-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {306}, editor = {Kr\'{a}lovi\v{c}, Rastislav and Ku\v{c}era, Anton{\'\i}n}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-205940}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.38}, annote = {Keywords: Temporal Graphs, Dilworth’s Theorem, DAGs, Path Cover, Temporally Disjoint Paths, Algorithms, Oriented Trees, Treewidth} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

Treewidth serves as an important parameter that, when bounded, yields tractability for a wide class of problems. For example, graph problems expressible in Monadic Second Order (MSO) logic and Quantified SAT or, more generally, Quantified CSP, are fixed-parameter tractable parameterized by the treewidth {of the input’s (primal) graph} plus the length of the MSO-formula [Courcelle, Information & Computation 1990] and the quantifier rank [Chen, ECAI 2004], respectively. The algorithms generated by these (meta-)results have running times whose dependence on treewidth is a tower of exponents. A conditional lower bound by Fichte, Hecher, and Pfandler [LICS 2020] shows that, for Quantified SAT, the height of this tower is equal to the number of quantifier alternations. These types of lower bounds, which show that at least double-exponential factors in the running time are necessary, exhibit the extraordinary level of computational hardness for such problems, and are rare in the current literature: there are only a handful of such lower bounds (for treewidth and vertex cover parameterizations) and all of them are for problems that are #NP-complete, Σ₂^p-complete, Π₂^p-complete, or complete for even higher levels of the polynomial hierarchy.
Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that it is not necessary to go higher up in the polynomial hierarchy to achieve double-exponential lower bounds: we derive double-exponential lower bounds in the treewidth (tw) and the vertex cover number (vc), for natural, important, and well-studied NP-complete graph problems. Specifically, we design a technique to obtain such lower bounds and show its versatility by applying it to three different problems: Metric Dimension, Strong Metric Dimension, and Geodetic Set. We prove that these problems do not admit 2^{2^o(tw)}⋅n^𝒪(1)-time algorithms, even on bounded diameter graphs, unless the ETH fails (here, n is the number of vertices in the graph). In fact, for Strong Metric Dimension, the double-exponential lower bound holds even for the vertex cover number. We further complement all our lower bounds with matching (and sometimes non-trivial) upper bounds.
For the conditional lower bounds, we design and use a novel, yet simple technique based on Sperner families of sets. We believe that the amenability of our technique will lead to obtaining such lower bounds for many other problems in NP.

Florent Foucaud, Esther Galby, Liana Khazaliya, Shaohua Li, Fionn Mc Inerney, Roohani Sharma, and Prafullkumar Tale. Problems in NP Can Admit Double-Exponential Lower Bounds When Parameterized by Treewidth or Vertex Cover. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 66:1-66:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{foucaud_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.66, author = {Foucaud, Florent and Galby, Esther and Khazaliya, Liana and Li, Shaohua and Mc Inerney, Fionn and Sharma, Roohani and Tale, Prafullkumar}, title = {{Problems in NP Can Admit Double-Exponential Lower Bounds When Parameterized by Treewidth or Vertex Cover}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {66:1--66:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.66}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-202091}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.66}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, ETH-based Lower Bounds, Double-Exponential Lower Bounds, Kernelization, Vertex Cover, Treewidth, Diameter, Metric Dimension, Strong Metric Dimension, Geodetic Sets} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

A set S of isometric paths of a graph G is "v-rooted", where v is a vertex of G, if v is one of the end-vertices of all the isometric paths in S. The isometric path complexity of a graph G, denoted by ipco (G), is the minimum integer k such that there exists a vertex v ∈ V(G) satisfying the following property: the vertices of any isometric path P of G can be covered by k many v-rooted isometric paths.
First, we provide an O(n² m)-time algorithm to compute the isometric path complexity of a graph with n vertices and m edges. Then we show that the isometric path complexity remains bounded for graphs in three seemingly unrelated graph classes, namely, hyperbolic graphs, (theta, prism, pyramid)-free graphs, and outerstring graphs. Hyperbolic graphs are extensively studied in Metric Graph Theory. The class of (theta, prism, pyramid)-free graphs are extensively studied in Structural Graph Theory, e.g. in the context of the Strong Perfect Graph Theorem. The class of outerstring graphs is studied in Geometric Graph Theory and Computational Geometry. Our results also show that the distance functions of these (structurally) different graph classes are more similar than previously thought.
There is a direct algorithmic consequence of having small isometric path complexity. Specifically, using a result of Chakraborty et al. [ISAAC 2022], we show that if the isometric path complexity of a graph G is bounded by a constant k, then there exists a k-factor approximation algorithm for Isometric Path Cover, whose objective is to cover all vertices of a graph with a minimum number of isometric paths.

Dibyayan Chakraborty, Jérémie Chalopin, Florent Foucaud, and Yann Vaxès. Isometric Path Complexity of Graphs. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 32:1-32:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.32, author = {Chakraborty, Dibyayan and Chalopin, J\'{e}r\'{e}mie and Foucaud, Florent and Vax\`{e}s, Yann}, title = {{Isometric Path Complexity of Graphs}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {32:1--32:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185666}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.32}, annote = {Keywords: Shortest paths, Isometric path complexity, Hyperbolic graphs, Truemper Configurations, Outerstring graphs, Isometric Path Cover} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

A path is isometric if it is a shortest path between its endpoints. In this article, we consider the graph covering problem Isometric Path Cover, where we want to cover all the vertices of the graph using a minimum-size set of isometric paths. Although this problem has been considered from a structural point of view (in particular, regarding applications to pursuit-evasion games), it is little studied from the algorithmic perspective. We consider Isometric Path Cover on chordal graphs, and show that the problem is NP-hard for this class. On the positive side, for chordal graphs, we design a 4-approximation algorithm and an FPT algorithm for the parameter solution size. The approximation algorithm is based on a reduction to the classic path covering problem on a suitable directed acyclic graph obtained from a breadth first search traversal of the graph. The approximation ratio of our algorithm is 3 for interval graphs and 2 for proper interval graphs. Moreover, we extend the analysis of our approximation algorithm to k-chordal graphs (graphs whose induced cycles have length at most k) by showing that it has an approximation ratio of k+7 for such graphs, and to graphs of treelength at most 𝓁, where the approximation ratio is at most 6𝓁+2.

Dibyayan Chakraborty, Antoine Dailly, Sandip Das, Florent Foucaud, Harmender Gahlawat, and Subir Kumar Ghosh. Complexity and Algorithms for ISOMETRIC PATH COVER on Chordal Graphs and Beyond. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 12:1-12:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.12, author = {Chakraborty, Dibyayan and Dailly, Antoine and Das, Sandip and Foucaud, Florent and Gahlawat, Harmender and Ghosh, Subir Kumar}, title = {{Complexity and Algorithms for ISOMETRIC PATH COVER on Chordal Graphs and Beyond}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {12:1--12:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-172974}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.12}, annote = {Keywords: Shortest paths, Isometric path cover, Chordal graph, Interval graph, AT-free graph, Approximation algorithm, FPT algorithm, Treewidth, Chordality, Treelength} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 248, 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)

We show that if the edges or vertices of an undirected graph G can be covered by k shortest paths, then the pathwidth of G is upper-bounded by a function of k. As a corollary, we prove that the problem Isometric Path Cover with Terminals (which, given a graph G and a set of k pairs of vertices called terminals, asks whether G can be covered by k shortest paths, each joining a pair of terminals) is FPT with respect to the number of terminals. The same holds for the similar problem Strong Geodetic Set with Terminals (which, given a graph G and a set of k terminals, asks whether there exist binom(k,2) shortest paths, each joining a distinct pair of terminals such that these paths cover G). Moreover, this implies that the related problems Isometric Path Cover and Strong Geodetic Set (defined similarly but where the set of terminals is not part of the input) are in XP with respect to parameter k.

Maël Dumas, Florent Foucaud, Anthony Perez, and Ioan Todinca. On Graphs Coverable by k Shortest Paths. In 33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 248, pp. 40:1-40:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{dumas_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.40, author = {Dumas, Ma\"{e}l and Foucaud, Florent and Perez, Anthony and Todinca, Ioan}, title = {{On Graphs Coverable by k Shortest Paths}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2022)}, pages = {40:1--40:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-258-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {248}, editor = {Bae, Sang Won and Park, Heejin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-173251}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2022.40}, annote = {Keywords: Shortest paths, covering problems, parameterized complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

We study the complexity of finding the geodetic number on subclasses of planar graphs and chordal graphs. A set S of vertices of a graph G is a geodetic set if every vertex of G lies in a shortest path between some pair of vertices of S. The Minimum Geodetic Set (MGS) problem is to find a geodetic set with minimum cardinality of a given graph. The problem is known to remain NP-hard on bipartite graphs, chordal graphs, planar graphs and subcubic graphs. We first study MGS on restricted classes of planar graphs: we design a linear-time algorithm for MGS on solid grids, improving on a 3-approximation algorithm by Chakraborty et al. (CALDAM, 2020) and show that MGS remains NP-hard even for subcubic partial grids of arbitrary girth. This unifies some results in the literature. We then turn our attention to chordal graphs, showing that MGS is fixed parameter tractable for inputs of this class when parameterized by their treewidth (which equals the clique number minus one). This implies a linear-time algorithm for k-trees, for fixed k. Then, we show that MGS is NP-hard on interval graphs, thereby answering a question of Ekim et al. (LATIN, 2012). As interval graphs are very constrained, to prove the latter result we design a rather sophisticated reduction technique to work around their inherent linear structure.

Dibyayan Chakraborty, Sandip Das, Florent Foucaud, Harmender Gahlawat, Dimitri Lajou, and Bodhayan Roy. Algorithms and Complexity for Geodetic Sets on Planar and Chordal Graphs. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 7:1-7:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chakraborty_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.7, author = {Chakraborty, Dibyayan and Das, Sandip and Foucaud, Florent and Gahlawat, Harmender and Lajou, Dimitri and Roy, Bodhayan}, title = {{Algorithms and Complexity for Geodetic Sets on Planar and Chordal Graphs}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {7:1--7:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133516}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.7}, annote = {Keywords: Geodetic set, Planar graph, Chordal graph, Interval graph, FPT algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 181, 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)

We study two geometric variations of the discriminating code problem. In the discrete version, a finite set of points P and a finite set of objects S are given in ℝ^d. The objective is to choose a subset S^* ⊆ S of minimum cardinality such that the subsets S_i^* ⊆ S^* covering p_i, satisfy S_i^* ≠ ∅ for each i = 1,2,…, n, and S_i^* ≠ S_j^* for each pair (i,j), i ≠ j. In the continuous version, the solution set S^* can be chosen freely among a (potentially infinite) class of allowed geometric objects.
In the 1-dimensional case (d = 1), the points are placed on some fixed-line L, and the objects in S are finite segments of L (called intervals). We show that the discrete version of this problem is NP-complete. This is somewhat surprising as the continuous version is known to be polynomial-time solvable. This is also in contrast with most geometric covering problems, which are usually polynomial-time solvable in 1D.
We then design a polynomial-time 2-approximation algorithm for the 1-dimensional discrete case. We also design a PTAS for both discrete and continuous cases when the intervals are all required to have the same length.
We then study the 2-dimensional case (d = 2) for axis-parallel unit square objects. We show that both continuous and discrete versions are NP-hard, and design polynomial-time approximation algorithms with factors 4+ε and 32+ε, respectively (for every fixed ε > 0).

Sanjana Dey, Florent Foucaud, Subhas C. Nandy, and Arunabha Sen. Discriminating Codes in Geometric Setups. In 31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 181, pp. 24:1-24:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{dey_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.24, author = {Dey, Sanjana and Foucaud, Florent and Nandy, Subhas C. and Sen, Arunabha}, title = {{Discriminating Codes in Geometric Setups}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2020)}, pages = {24:1--24:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-173-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {181}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Cheng, Siu-Wing and Li, Minming}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133686}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2020.24}, annote = {Keywords: Discriminating code, Approximation algorithm, Segment stabbing, Geometric Hitting set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)

We study the complexity of graph modification problems with respect to homomorphism-based colouring properties of edge-coloured graphs. A homomorphism from an edge-coloured graph G to an edge-coloured graph H is a vertex-mapping from G to H that preserves adjacencies and edge-colours. We consider the property of having a homomorphism to a fixed edge-coloured graph H, which generalises the classic vertex-colourability property. The question we are interested in is the following: given an edge-coloured graph G, can we perform k graph operations so that the resulting graph admits a homomorphism to H? The operations we consider are vertex-deletion, edge-deletion and switching (an operation that permutes the colours of the edges incident to a given vertex). Switching plays an important role in the theory of signed graphs, that are 2-edge-coloured graphs whose colours are the signs + and -. We denote the corresponding problems (parameterized by k) by Vertex Deletion-H-Colouring, Edge Deletion-H-Colouring and Switching-H-Colouring. These problems generalise the extensively studied H-Colouring problem (where one has to decide if an input graph admits a homomorphism to a fixed target H). For 2-edge-coloured H, it is known that H-Colouring already captures the complexity of all fixed-target Constraint Satisfaction Problems.
Our main focus is on the case where H is an edge-coloured graph of order at most 2, a case that is already interesting since it includes standard problems such as Vertex Cover, Odd Cycle Transversal and Edge Bipartization. For such a graph H, we give a PTime/NP-complete complexity dichotomy for all three Vertex Deletion-H-Colouring, Edge Deletion-H-Colouring and Switching-H-Colouring problems. Then, we address their parameterized complexity. We show that all Vertex Deletion-H-Colouring and Edge Deletion-H-Colouring problems for such H are FPT. This is in contrast with the fact that already for some H of order 3, unless PTime = NP, none of the three considered problems is in XP, since 3-Colouring is NP-complete. We show that the situation is different for Switching-H-Colouring: there are three 2-edge-coloured graphs H of order 2 for which Switching-H-Colouring is W[1]-hard, and assuming the ETH, admits no algorithm in time f(k)n^{o(k)} for inputs of size n and for any computable function f. For the other cases, Switching-H-Colouring is FPT.

Florent Foucaud, Hervé Hocquard, Dimitri Lajou, Valia Mitsou, and Théo Pierron. Parameterized Complexity of Edge-Coloured and Signed Graph Homomorphism Problems. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 15:1-15:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{foucaud_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.15, author = {Foucaud, Florent and Hocquard, Herv\'{e} and Lajou, Dimitri and Mitsou, Valia and Pierron, Th\'{e}o}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Edge-Coloured and Signed Graph Homomorphism Problems}}, booktitle = {14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)}, pages = {15:1--15:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-129-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {148}, editor = {Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114765}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.15}, annote = {Keywords: Graph homomorphism, Graph modification, Edge-coloured graph, Signed graph} }

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