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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

We present a general framework for designing efficient algorithms for unsupervised learning problems, such as mixtures of Gaussians and subspace clustering. Our framework is based on a meta algorithm that learns arithmetic formulas in the presence of noise, using lower bounds. This builds upon the recent work of Garg, Kayal and Saha (FOCS '20), who designed such a framework for learning arithmetic formulas without any noise. A key ingredient of our meta algorithm is an efficient algorithm for a novel problem called Robust Vector Space Decomposition. We show that our meta algorithm works well when certain matrices have sufficiently large smallest non-zero singular values. We conjecture that this condition holds for smoothed instances of our problems, and thus our framework would yield efficient algorithms for these problems in the smoothed setting.

Pritam Chandra, Ankit Garg, Neeraj Kayal, Kunal Mittal, and Tanmay Sinha. Learning Arithmetic Formulas in the Presence of Noise: A General Framework and Applications to Unsupervised Learning. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 25:1-25:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{chandra_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.25, author = {Chandra, Pritam and Garg, Ankit and Kayal, Neeraj and Mittal, Kunal and Sinha, Tanmay}, title = {{Learning Arithmetic Formulas in the Presence of Noise: A General Framework and Applications to Unsupervised Learning}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {25:1--25:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195537}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.25}, annote = {Keywords: Arithmetic Circuits, Robust Vector Space Decomposition, Subspace Clustering, Mixtures of Gaussians} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

A recent breakthrough work of Limaye, Srinivasan and Tavenas [Nutan Limaye et al., 2021] proved superpolynomial lower bounds for low-depth arithmetic circuits via a "hardness escalation" approach: they proved lower bounds for low-depth set-multilinear circuits and then lifted the bounds to low-depth general circuits. In this work, we prove superpolynomial lower bounds for low-depth circuits by bypassing the hardness escalation, i.e., the set-multilinearization, step. As set-multilinearization comes with an exponential blow-up in circuit size, our direct proof opens up the possibility of proving an exponential lower bound for low-depth homogeneous circuits by evading a crucial bottleneck. Our bounds hold for the iterated matrix multiplication and the Nisan-Wigderson design polynomials. We also define a subclass of unrestricted depth homogeneous formulas which we call unique parse tree (UPT) formulas, and prove superpolynomial lower bounds for these. This significantly generalizes the superpolynomial lower bounds for regular formulas [Neeraj Kayal et al., 2014; Hervé Fournier et al., 2015].

Prashanth Amireddy, Ankit Garg, Neeraj Kayal, Chandan Saha, and Bhargav Thankey. Low-Depth Arithmetic Circuit Lower Bounds: Bypassing Set-Multilinearization. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 12:1-12:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{amireddy_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.12, author = {Amireddy, Prashanth and Garg, Ankit and Kayal, Neeraj and Saha, Chandan and Thankey, Bhargav}, title = {{Low-Depth Arithmetic Circuit Lower Bounds: Bypassing Set-Multilinearization}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {12:1--12:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180642}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.12}, annote = {Keywords: arithmetic circuits, low-depth circuits, lower bounds, shifted partials} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

Consider a homogeneous degree d polynomial f = T₁ + ⋯ + T_s, T_i = g_i(𝓁_{i,1}, …, 𝓁_{i, m}) where g_i’s are homogeneous m-variate degree d polynomials and 𝓁_{i,j}’s are linear polynomials in n variables. We design a (randomized) learning algorithm that given black-box access to f, computes black-boxes for the T_i’s. The running time of the algorithm is poly(n, m, d, s) and the algorithm works under some non-degeneracy conditions on the linear forms and the g_i’s, and some additional technical assumptions n ≥ (md)², s ≤ n^{d/4}. The non-degeneracy conditions on 𝓁_{i,j}’s constitute non-membership in a variety, and hence are satisfied when the coefficients of 𝓁_{i,j}’s are chosen uniformly and randomly from a large enough set. The conditions on g_i’s are satisfied for random polynomials and also for natural polynomials common in the study of arithmetic complexity like determinant, permanent, elementary symmetric polynomial, iterated matrix multiplication. A particularly appealing algorithmic corollary is the following: Given black-box access to an f = Det_r(L^(1)) + … + Det_r(L^(s)), where L^(k) = (𝓁_{i,j}^(k))_{i,j} with 𝓁_{i,j}^(k)’s being linear forms in n variables chosen randomly, there is an algorithm which in time poly(n, r) outputs matrices (M^(k))_k of linear forms s.t. there exists a permutation π: [s] → [s] with Det_r(M^(k)) = Det_r(L^(π(k))).
Our work follows the works [Neeraj Kayal and Chandan Saha, 2019; Garg et al., 2020] which use lower bound methods in arithmetic complexity to design average case learning algorithms. It also vastly generalizes the result in [Neeraj Kayal and Chandan Saha, 2019] about learning depth three circuits, which is a special case where each g_i is just a monomial. At the core of our algorithm is the partial derivative method which can be used to prove lower bounds for generalized depth three circuits. To apply the general framework in [Neeraj Kayal and Chandan Saha, 2019; Garg et al., 2020], we need to establish that the non-degeneracy conditions arising out of applying the framework with the partial derivative method are satisfied in the random case. We develop simple but general and powerful tools to establish this, which might be useful in designing average case learning algorithms for other arithmetic circuit models.

Vishwas Bhargava, Ankit Garg, Neeraj Kayal, and Chandan Saha. Learning Generalized Depth Three Arithmetic Circuits in the Non-Degenerate Case. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 21:1-21:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{bhargava_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.21, author = {Bhargava, Vishwas and Garg, Ankit and Kayal, Neeraj and Saha, Chandan}, title = {{Learning Generalized Depth Three Arithmetic Circuits in the Non-Degenerate Case}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {21:1--21:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171430}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.21}, annote = {Keywords: Arithemtic Circuits, Average-case Learning, Depth 3 Arithmetic Circuits, Learning Algorithms, Learning Circuits, Circuit Reconstruction} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

We give improved separations for the query complexity analogue of the log-approximate-rank conjecture i.e. we show that there are a plethora of total Boolean functions on n input bits, each of which has approximate Fourier sparsity at most O(n³) and randomized parity decision tree complexity Θ(n). This improves upon the recent work of Chattopadhyay, Mande and Sherif [Chattopadhyay et al., 2020] both qualitatively (in terms of designing a large number of examples) and quantitatively (shrinking the gap from quartic to cubic). We leave open the problem of proving a randomized communication complexity lower bound for XOR compositions of our examples. A linear lower bound would lead to new and improved refutations of the log-approximate-rank conjecture. Moreover, if any of these compositions had even a sub-linear cost randomized communication protocol, it would demonstrate that randomized parity decision tree complexity does not lift to randomized communication complexity in general (with the XOR gadget).

Arkadev Chattopadhyay, Ankit Garg, and Suhail Sherif. Towards Stronger Counterexamples to the Log-Approximate-Rank Conjecture. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 13:1-13:16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{chattopadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.13, author = {Chattopadhyay, Arkadev and Garg, Ankit and Sherif, Suhail}, title = {{Towards Stronger Counterexamples to the Log-Approximate-Rank Conjecture}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {13:1--13:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155245}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.13}, annote = {Keywords: Approximate Rank, Randomized Parity Decision Trees, Randomized Communication Complexity, XOR functions, Subspace Designs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

We study the first-order convex optimization problem, where we have black-box access to a (not necessarily smooth) function f:ℝⁿ → ℝ and its (sub)gradient. Our goal is to find an ε-approximate minimum of f starting from a point that is distance at most R from the true minimum. If f is G-Lipschitz, then the classic gradient descent algorithm solves this problem with O((GR/ε)²) queries. Importantly, the number of queries is independent of the dimension n and gradient descent is optimal in this regard: No deterministic or randomized algorithm can achieve better complexity that is still independent of the dimension n.
In this paper we reprove the randomized lower bound of Ω((GR/ε)²) using a simpler argument than previous lower bounds. We then show that although the function family used in the lower bound is hard for randomized algorithms, it can be solved using O(GR/ε) quantum queries. We then show an improved lower bound against quantum algorithms using a different set of instances and establish our main result that in general even quantum algorithms need Ω((GR/ε)²) queries to solve the problem. Hence there is no quantum speedup over gradient descent for black-box first-order convex optimization without further assumptions on the function family.

Ankit Garg, Robin Kothari, Praneeth Netrapalli, and Suhail Sherif. No Quantum Speedup over Gradient Descent for Non-Smooth Convex Optimization. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 53:1-53:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{garg_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.53, author = {Garg, Ankit and Kothari, Robin and Netrapalli, Praneeth and Sherif, Suhail}, title = {{No Quantum Speedup over Gradient Descent for Non-Smooth Convex Optimization}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {53:1--53:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135921}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.53}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum algorithms, Gradient descent, Convex optimization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 169, 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)

We consider the problem of computing succinct encodings of lists of generators for invariant rings for group actions. Mulmuley conjectured that there are always polynomial sized such encodings for invariant rings of SL_n(ℂ)-representations. We provide simple examples that disprove this conjecture (under standard complexity assumptions).
We develop a general framework, denoted algebraic circuit search problems, that captures many important problems in algebraic complexity and computational invariant theory. This framework encompasses various proof systems in proof complexity and some of the central problems in invariant theory as exposed by the Geometric Complexity Theory (GCT) program, including the aforementioned problem of computing succinct encodings for generators for invariant rings.

Ankit Garg, Christian Ikenmeyer, Visu Makam, Rafael Oliveira, Michael Walter, and Avi Wigderson. Search Problems in Algebraic Complexity, GCT, and Hardness of Generators for Invariant Rings. In 35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 169, pp. 12:1-12:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{garg_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2020.12, author = {Garg, Ankit and Ikenmeyer, Christian and Makam, Visu and Oliveira, Rafael and Walter, Michael and Wigderson, Avi}, title = {{Search Problems in Algebraic Complexity, GCT, and Hardness of Generators for Invariant Rings}}, booktitle = {35th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2020)}, pages = {12:1--12:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-156-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {169}, editor = {Saraf, Shubhangi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-125645}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2020.12}, annote = {Keywords: generators for invariant rings, succinct encodings} }

Document

Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 132, 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)

The determinant polynomial Det_n(x) of degree n is the determinant of a n x n matrix of formal variables. A polynomial f is equivalent to Det_n(x) over a field F if there exists a A in GL(n^2,F) such that f = Det_n(A * x). Determinant equivalence test over F is the following algorithmic task: Given black-box access to a f in F[x], check if f is equivalent to Det_n(x) over F, and if so then output a transformation matrix A in GL(n^2,F). In (Kayal, STOC 2012), a randomized polynomial time determinant equivalence test was given over F = C. But, to our knowledge, the complexity of the problem over finite fields and over Q was not well understood.
In this work, we give a randomized poly(n,log |F|) time determinant equivalence test over finite fields F (under mild restrictions on the characteristic and size of F). Over Q, we give an efficient randomized reduction from factoring square-free integers to determinant equivalence test for quadratic forms (i.e. the n=2 case), assuming GRH. This shows that designing a polynomial-time determinant equivalence test over Q is a challenging task. Nevertheless, we show that determinant equivalence test over Q is decidable: For bounded n, there is a randomized polynomial-time determinant equivalence test over Q with access to an oracle for integer factoring. Moreover, for any n, there is a randomized polynomial-time algorithm that takes input black-box access to a f in Q[x] and if f is equivalent to Det_n over Q then it returns a A in GL(n^2,L) such that f = Det_n(A * x), where L is an extension field of Q and [L : Q] <= n.
The above algorithms over finite fields and over Q are obtained by giving a polynomial-time randomized reduction from determinant equivalence test to another problem, namely the full matrix algebra isomorphism problem. We also show a reduction in the converse direction which is efficient if n is bounded. These reductions, which hold over any F (under mild restrictions on the characteristic and size of F), establish a close connection between the complexity of the two problems. This then leads to our results via applications of known results on the full algebra isomorphism problem over finite fields (Rónyai, STOC 1987 and Rónyai, J. Symb. Comput. 1990) and over Q (Ivanyos {et al}., Journal of Algebra 2012 and Babai {et al}., Mathematics of Computation 1990).

Ankit Garg, Nikhil Gupta, Neeraj Kayal, and Chandan Saha. Determinant Equivalence Test over Finite Fields and over Q. In 46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 132, pp. 62:1-62:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{garg_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.62, author = {Garg, Ankit and Gupta, Nikhil and Kayal, Neeraj and Saha, Chandan}, title = {{Determinant Equivalence Test over Finite Fields and over Q}}, booktitle = {46th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2019)}, pages = {62:1--62:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-109-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {132}, editor = {Baier, Christel and Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Flocchini, Paola and Leonardi, Stefano}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-106382}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2019.62}, annote = {Keywords: Determinant equivalence test, full matrix algebra isomorphism, Lie algebra} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

Arithmetic complexity, the study of the cost of computing polynomials via additions and multiplications, is considered (for many good reasons) simpler to understand than Boolean complexity, namely computing Boolean functions via logical gates. And indeed, we seem to have significantly more lower bound techniques and results in arithmetic complexity than in Boolean complexity. Despite many successes and rapid progress, however, foundational challenges, like proving super-polynomial lower bounds on circuit or formula size for explicit polynomials, or super-linear lower bounds on explicit 3-dimensional tensors, remain elusive.
At the same time (and possibly for similar reasons), we have plenty more excuses, in the form of "barrier results" for failing to prove basic lower bounds in Boolean complexity than in arithmetic complexity. Efforts to find barriers to arithmetic lower bound techniques seem harder, and despite some attempts we have no excuses of similar quality for these failures in arithmetic complexity. This paper aims to add to this study.
In this paper we address rank methods, which were long recognized as encompassing and abstracting almost all known arithmetic lower bounds to-date, including the most recent impressive successes. Rank methods (under the name of flattenings) are also in wide use in algebraic geometry for proving tensor rank and symmetric tensor rank lower bounds. Our main results are barriers to these methods. In particular,
1. Rank methods cannot prove better than (2^d)*n^(d/2) lower bound on the tensor rank of any d-dimensional tensor of side n. (In particular, they cannot prove super-linear, indeed even >8n tensor rank lower bounds for any 3-dimensional tensors.)
2. Rank methods cannot prove (d+1)n^(d/2) on the Waring rank of any n-variate polynomial of degree d. (In particular, they cannot prove such lower bounds on stronger models, including depth-3 circuits.)
The proofs of these bounds use simple linear-algebraic arguments, leveraging connections between the symbolic rank of matrix polynomials and the usual rank of their evaluations. These techniques can perhaps be extended to barriers for other arithmetic models on which progress has halted.
To see how these barrier results directly inform the state-of-art in arithmetic complexity we note the following.
First, the bounds above nearly match the best explicit bounds we know for these models, hence offer an explanations why the rank methods got stuck there. Second, the bounds above are a far cry (quadratically away) from the true complexity (e.g. of random polynomials) in these models, which if achieved (by any methods), are known to imply super-polynomial formula lower bounds.
We also explain the relation of our barrier results to other attempts, and in particular how they significantly differ from the recent attempts to find analogues of "natural proofs" for arithmetic complexity. Finally, we discuss the few arithmetic lower bound approaches which fall outside rank methods, and some natural directions our barriers suggest.

Klim Efremenko, Ankit Garg, Rafael Oliveira, and Avi Wigderson. Barriers for Rank Methods in Arithmetic Complexity. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 1:1-1:19, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{efremenko_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.1, author = {Efremenko, Klim and Garg, Ankit and Oliveira, Rafael and Wigderson, Avi}, title = {{Barriers for Rank Methods in Arithmetic Complexity}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {1:1--1:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83506}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.1}, annote = {Keywords: Lower Bounds, Barriers, Partial Derivatives, Flattenings, Algebraic Complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

Alternating minimization heuristics seek to solve a (difficult) global optimization task through iteratively solving a sequence of (much easier) local optimization tasks on different parts (or blocks) of the input parameters. While popular and widely applicable, very few examples of this heuristic are rigorously shown to converge to optimality, and even fewer to do so efficiently.
In this paper we present a general framework which is amenable to rigorous analysis, and expose its applicability. Its main feature is that the local optimization domains are each a group of invertible matrices, together naturally acting on tensors, and the optimization problem is minimizing the norm of an input tensor under this joint action. The solution of this optimization problem captures a basic problem in Invariant Theory, called the null-cone problem.
This algebraic framework turns out to encompass natural computational problems in combinatorial optimization, algebra, analysis, quantum information theory, and geometric complexity theory. It includes and extends to high dimensions the recent advances on (2-dimensional) operator scaling.
Our main result is a fully polynomial time approximation scheme for this general problem, which may be viewed as a multi-dimensional scaling algorithm. This directly leads to progress on some of the problems in the areas above, and a unified view of others. We explain how faster convergence of an algorithm for the same problem will allow resolving central open problems.
Our main techniques come from Invariant Theory, and include its rich non-commutative duality theory, and new bounds on the bitsizes of coefficients of invariant polynomials. They enrich the algorithmic toolbox of this very computational field of mathematics, and are directly related to some challenges in geometric complexity theory (GCT).

Peter Bürgisser, Ankit Garg, Rafael Oliveira, Michael Walter, and Avi Wigderson. Alternating Minimization, Scaling Algorithms, and the Null-Cone Problem from Invariant Theory. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 24:1-24:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{burgisser_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.24, author = {B\"{u}rgisser, Peter and Garg, Ankit and Oliveira, Rafael and Walter, Michael and Wigderson, Avi}, title = {{Alternating Minimization, Scaling Algorithms, and the Null-Cone Problem from Invariant Theory}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {24:1--24:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83510}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.24}, annote = {Keywords: alternating minimization, tensors, scaling, quantum marginal problem, null cone, invariant theory, geometric complexity theory} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 79, 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)

One of the best lower bound methods for the quantum communication complexity of a function H (with or without shared entanglement) is the logarithm of the approximate rank of the communication matrix of H. This measure is essentially equivalent to the approximate gamma-2 norm and generalized discrepancy, and subsumes several other lower bounds. All known lower bounds on quantum communication complexity in the general unbounded-round model can be shown via the logarithm of approximate rank, and it was an open problem to give any separation at all between quantum communication complexity and the logarithm of the approximate rank.
In this work we provide the first such separation: We exhibit a total function H with quantum communication complexity almost quadratically larger than the logarithm of its approximate rank. We construct H using the communication lookup function framework of Anshu et al. (FOCS 2016) based on the cheat sheet framework of Aaronson et al. (STOC 2016). From a starting function F, this framework defines a new function H=F_G. Our main technical result is a lower bound on the quantum communication complexity of F_G in terms of the discrepancy of F, which we do via quantum information theoretic arguments. We show the upper bound on the approximate rank of F_G by relating it to the Boolean circuit size of the starting function F.

Anurag Anshu, Shalev Ben-David, Ankit Garg, Rahul Jain, Robin Kothari, and Troy Lee. Separating Quantum Communication and Approximate Rank. In 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 79, pp. 24:1-24:33, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{anshu_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2017.24, author = {Anshu, Anurag and Ben-David, Shalev and Garg, Ankit and Jain, Rahul and Kothari, Robin and Lee, Troy}, title = {{Separating Quantum Communication and Approximate Rank}}, booktitle = {32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)}, pages = {24:1--24:33}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-040-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {79}, editor = {O'Donnell, Ryan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75303}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.24}, annote = {Keywords: Communication Complexity, Quantum Computing, Lower Bounds, logrank, Quantum Information} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 61, 11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016)

Data compression is a fundamental problem in quantum and classical information theory. A typical version of the problem is that the sender Alice receives a (classical or quantum) state from some known ensemble and needs to transmit them to the receiver Bob with average error below some specified bound. We consider the case in which the message can have a variable length and the goal is to minimize its expected length.
For classical messages this problem has a well-known solution given by Huffman coding. In this scheme, the expected length of the message is equal to the Shannon entropy of the source (with a constant additive factor) and the scheme succeeds with zero error. This is a single-shot result which implies the asymptotic result, viz. Shannon's source coding theorem, by encoding each state sequentially.
For the quantum case, the asymptotic compression rate is given by the von-Neumann entropy. However, we show that there is no one-shot scheme which is able to match this rate, even if interactive communication is allowed. This is a relatively rare case in quantum information theory when the cost of a quantum task is significantly different than the classical analogue. Our result has implications for direct sum theorems in quantum communication complexity and one-shot formulations of Quantum Reverse Shannon theorem.

Anurag Anshu, Ankit Garg, Aram W. Harrow, and Penghui Yao. Lower Bound on Expected Communication Cost of Quantum Huffman Coding. In 11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 61, pp. 3:1-3:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{anshu_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2016.3, author = {Anshu, Anurag and Garg, Ankit and Harrow, Aram W. and Yao, Penghui}, title = {{Lower Bound on Expected Communication Cost of Quantum Huffman Coding}}, booktitle = {11th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2016)}, pages = {3:1--3:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-019-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {61}, editor = {Broadbent, Anne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2016.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66843}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2016.3}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum information, quantum communication, expected communica- tion cost, huffman coding} }

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