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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

The problem of sorting with priced information was introduced by [Charikar, Fagin, Guruswami, Kleinberg, Raghavan, Sahai (CFGKRS), STOC 2000]. In this setting, different comparisons have different (potentially infinite) costs. The goal is to find a sorting algorithm with small competitive ratio, defined as the (worst-case) ratio of the algorithm’s cost to the cost of the cheapest proof of the sorted order.
The simple case of bichromatic sorting posed by [CFGKRS] remains open: We are given two sets A and B of total size N, and the cost of an A-A comparison or a B-B comparison is higher than an A-B comparison. The goal is to sort A ∪ B. An Ω(log N) lower bound on competitive ratio follows from unit-cost sorting. Note that this is a generalization of the famous nuts and bolts problem, where A-A and B-B comparisons have infinite cost, and elements of A and B are guaranteed to alternate in the final sorted order.
In this paper we give a randomized algorithm InversionSort with an almost-optimal w.h.p. competitive ratio of O(log³ N). This is the first algorithm for bichromatic sorting with a o(N) competitive ratio.

Mayank Goswami and Riko Jacob. An Algorithm for Bichromatic Sorting with Polylog Competitive Ratio. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 56:1-56:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{goswami_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.56, author = {Goswami, Mayank and Jacob, Riko}, title = {{An Algorithm for Bichromatic Sorting with Polylog Competitive Ratio}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {56:1--56:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195843}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.56}, annote = {Keywords: Sorting, Priced Information, Nuts and Bolts} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

The classical and extensively-studied Fréchet distance between two curves is defined as an inf max, where the infimum is over all traversals of the curves, and the maximum is over all concurrent positions of the two agents. In this article we investigate a "flipped" Fréchet measure defined by a sup min - the supremum is over all traversals of the curves, and the minimum is over all concurrent positions of the two agents. This measure produces a notion of "social distance" between two curves (or general domains), where agents traverse curves while trying to stay as far apart as possible.
We first study the flipped Fréchet measure between two polygonal curves in one and two dimensions, providing conditional lower bounds and matching algorithms. We then consider this measure on polygons, where it denotes the minimum distance that two agents can maintain while restricted to travel in or on the boundary of the same polygon. We investigate several variants of the problem in this setting, for some of which we provide linear time algorithms. Finally, we consider this measure on graphs.
We draw connections between our proposed flipped Fréchet measure and existing related work in computational geometry, hoping that our new measure may spawn investigations akin to those performed for the Fréchet distance, and into further interesting problems that arise.

Omrit Filtser, Mayank Goswami, Joseph S. B. Mitchell, and Valentin Polishchuk. On Flipping the Fréchet Distance. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 51:1-51:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{filtser_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.51, author = {Filtser, Omrit and Goswami, Mayank and Mitchell, Joseph S. B. and Polishchuk, Valentin}, title = {{On Flipping the Fr\'{e}chet Distance}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {51:1--51:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175548}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.51}, annote = {Keywords: curves, polygons, distancing measure} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

Motivated by indoor localization by tripwire lasers, we study the problem of cutting a polygon into small-size pieces, using the chords of the polygon. Several versions are considered, depending on the definition of the "size" of a piece. In particular, we consider the area, the diameter, and the radius of the largest inscribed circle as a measure of the size of a piece. We also consider different objectives, either minimizing the maximum size of a piece for a given number of chords, or minimizing the number of chords that achieve a given size threshold for the pieces. We give hardness results for polygons with holes and approximation algorithms for multiple variants of the problem.

Esther M. Arkin, Rathish Das, Jie Gao, Mayank Goswami, Joseph S. B. Mitchell, Valentin Polishchuk, and Csaba D. Tóth. Cutting Polygons into Small Pieces with Chords: Laser-Based Localization. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 7:1-7:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{arkin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.7, author = {Arkin, Esther M. and Das, Rathish and Gao, Jie and Goswami, Mayank and Mitchell, Joseph S. B. and Polishchuk, Valentin and T\'{o}th, Csaba D.}, title = {{Cutting Polygons into Small Pieces with Chords: Laser-Based Localization}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {7:1--7:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128736}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.7}, annote = {Keywords: Polygon partition, Arrangements, Visibility, Localization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 123, 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)

We study multi-finger binary search trees (BSTs), a far-reaching extension of the classical BST model, with connections to the well-studied k-server problem. Finger search is a popular technique for speeding up BST operations when a query sequence has locality of reference. BSTs with multiple fingers can exploit more general regularities in the input. In this paper we consider the cost of serving a sequence of queries in an optimal (offline) BST with k fingers, a powerful benchmark against which other algorithms can be measured.
We show that the k-finger optimum can be matched by a standard dynamic BST (having a single root-finger) with an O(log{k}) factor overhead. This result is tight for all k, improving the O(k) factor implicit in earlier work. Furthermore, we describe new online BSTs that match this bound up to a (log{k})^{O(1)} factor. Previously only the "one-finger" special case was known to hold for an online BST (Iacono, Langerman, 2016; Cole et al., 2000). Splay trees, assuming their conjectured optimality (Sleator and Tarjan, 1983), would have to match our bounds for all k.
Our online algorithms are randomized and combine techniques developed for the k-server problem with a multiplicative-weights scheme for learning tree metrics. To our knowledge, this is the first time when tools developed for the k-server problem are used in BSTs. As an application of our k-finger results, we show that BSTs can efficiently serve queries that are close to some recently accessed item. This is a (restricted) form of the unified property (Iacono, 2001) that was previously not known to hold for any BST algorithm, online or offline.

Parinya Chalermsook, Mayank Goswami, László Kozma, Kurt Mehlhorn, and Thatchaphol Saranurak. Multi-Finger Binary Search Trees. In 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 123, pp. 55:1-55:26, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{chalermsook_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.55, author = {Chalermsook, Parinya and Goswami, Mayank and Kozma, L\'{a}szl\'{o} and Mehlhorn, Kurt and Saranurak, Thatchaphol}, title = {{Multi-Finger Binary Search Trees}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)}, pages = {55:1--55:26}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-094-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {123}, editor = {Hsu, Wen-Lian and Lee, Der-Tsai and Liao, Chung-Shou}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-100032}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.55}, annote = {Keywords: binary search trees, dynamic optimality, finger search, k-server} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)

Frequency estimation data structures such as the count-min sketch (CMS) have found numerous applications in databases, networking, computational biology and other domains. Many applications that use the count-min sketch process massive and rapidly evolving data sets. For data-intensive applications that aim to keep the overestimate error low, the count-min sketch becomes too large to store in available RAM and may have to migrate to external storage (e.g., SSD.) Due to the random-read/write nature of hash operations of the count-min sketch, simply placing it on SSD stifles the performance of time-critical applications, requiring about 4-6 random reads/writes to SSD per estimate (lookup) and update (insert) operation.
In this paper, we expand on the preliminary idea of the buffered count-min sketch (BCMS) {[Eydi et al., 2017]}, an SSD variant of the count-min sketch, that uses hash localization to scale efficiently out of RAM while keeping the total error bounded. We describe the design and implementation of the buffered count-min sketch, and empirically show that our implementation achieves 3.7 x-4.7 x speedup on update and 4.3 x speedup on estimate operations compared to the traditional count-min sketch on SSD.
Our design also offers an asymptotic improvement in the external-memory model over the original data structure: r random I/Os are reduced to 1 I/O for the estimate operation. For a data structure that uses k blocks on SSD, w as the word/counter size, r as the number of rows, M as the number of bits in the main memory, our data structure uses kwr/M amortized I/Os for updates, or, if kwr/M > 1, 1 I/O in the worst case. In typical scenarios, kwr/M is much smaller than 1. This is in contrast to O(r) I/Os incurred for each update in the original data structure.
Lastly, we mathematically show that for the buffered count-min sketch, the error rate does not substantially degrade over the traditional count-min sketch. Specifically, we prove that for any query q, our data structure provides the guarantee: Pr[Error(q) >= n epsilon (1+o(1))] <= delta + o(1), which, up to o(1) terms, is the same guarantee as that of a traditional count-min sketch.

Mayank Goswami, Dzejla Medjedovic, Emina Mekic, and Prashant Pandey. Buffered Count-Min Sketch on SSD: Theory and Experiments. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 41:1-41:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{goswami_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.41, author = {Goswami, Mayank and Medjedovic, Dzejla and Mekic, Emina and Pandey, Prashant}, title = {{Buffered Count-Min Sketch on SSD: Theory and Experiments}}, booktitle = {26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)}, pages = {41:1--41:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-081-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {112}, editor = {Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.41}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-95042}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.41}, annote = {Keywords: Streaming model, Count-min sketch, Counting, Frequency, External memory, I/O efficiency, Bloom filter, Counting filter, Quotient filter} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 34, 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)

By the Riemann mapping theorem, one can bijectively map the interior of an n-gon P to that of another n-gon Q conformally (i.e., in an angle preserving manner). However, when this map is extended to the boundary it need not necessarily map the vertices of P to those of Q. For many applications it is important to find the "best" vertex-preserving mapping between two polygons, i.e., one that minimizes the maximum angle distortion (the so-called dilatation). Such maps exist, are unique, and are known as extremal quasiconformal maps or Teichmüller maps.
There are many efficient ways to approximate conformal maps, and the recent breakthrough result by Bishop computes a (1+epsilon)-approximation of the Riemann map in linear time. However, only heuristics have been studied in the case of Teichmüller maps.
We present two results in this paper. One studies the problem in the continuous setting and another in the discrete setting.
In the continuous setting, we solve the problem of finding a finite time procedure for approximating Teichmüller maps. Our construction is via an iterative procedure that is proven to converge in O(poly(1/epsilon)) iterations to a (1+epsilon)-approximation of the Teichmuller map. Our method uses a reduction of the polygon mapping problem to the marked sphere problem, thus solving a more general problem.
In the discrete setting, we reduce the problem of finding an approximation algorithm for computing Teichmüller maps to two basic subroutines, namely, computing discrete 1) compositions and 2) inverses of discretely represented quasiconformal maps. Assuming finite-time solvers for these subroutines we provide a (1+epsilon)-approximation algorithm.

Mayank Goswami, Xianfeng Gu, Vamsi P. Pingali, and Gaurish Telang. Computing Teichmüller Maps between Polygons. In 31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 34, pp. 615-629, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{goswami_et_al:LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.615, author = {Goswami, Mayank and Gu, Xianfeng and Pingali, Vamsi P. and Telang, Gaurish}, title = {{Computing Teichm\"{u}ller Maps between Polygons}}, booktitle = {31st International Symposium on Computational Geometry (SoCG 2015)}, pages = {615--629}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-83-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {34}, editor = {Arge, Lars and Pach, J\'{a}nos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.615}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-50997}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SOCG.2015.615}, annote = {Keywords: Teichm\"{u}ller maps, Surface registration, Extremal Quasiconformal maps, Computer vision} }

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