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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

We explicitly construct the first nontrivial extractors for degree d ≥ 2 polynomial sources over 𝔽₂. Our extractor requires min-entropy k ≥ n - (√{log n})/((log log n / d)^{d/2}). Previously, no constructions were known, even for min-entropy k ≥ n-1. A key ingredient in our construction is an input reduction lemma, which allows us to assume that any polynomial source with min-entropy k can be generated by O(k) uniformly random bits.
We also provide strong formal evidence that polynomial sources are unusually challenging to extract from, by showing that even our most powerful general purpose extractors cannot handle polynomial sources with min-entropy below k ≥ n-o(n). In more detail, we show that sumset extractors cannot even disperse from degree 2 polynomial sources with min-entropy k ≥ n-O(n/log log n). In fact, this impossibility result even holds for a more specialized family of sources that we introduce, called polynomial non-oblivious bit-fixing (NOBF) sources. Polynomial NOBF sources are a natural new family of algebraic sources that lie at the intersection of polynomial and variety sources, and thus our impossibility result applies to both of these classical settings. This is especially surprising, since we do have variety extractors that slightly beat this barrier - implying that sumset extractors are not a panacea in the world of seedless extraction.

Eshan Chattopadhyay, Jesse Goodman, and Mohit Gurumukhani. Extractors for Polynomial Sources over 𝔽₂. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 28:1-28:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{chattopadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.28, author = {Chattopadhyay, Eshan and Goodman, Jesse and Gurumukhani, Mohit}, title = {{Extractors for Polynomial Sources over \mathbb{F}₂}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {28:1--28:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195569}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.28}, annote = {Keywords: Extractors, low-degree polynomials, varieties, sumset extractors} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 214, 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)

We define a class of problems whose input is an n-sized set of d-dimensional vectors, and where the problem is first-order definable using comparisons between coordinates. This class captures a wide variety of tasks, such as complex types of orthogonal range search, model-checking first-order properties on geometric intersection graphs, and elementary questions on multidimensional data like verifying Pareto optimality of a choice of data points.
Focusing on constant dimension d, we show that any k-quantifier, d-dimensional such problem is solvable in O(n^{k-1} log^{d-1} n) time. Furthermore, this algorithm is conditionally tight up to subpolynomial factors: we show that assuming the 3-uniform hyperclique hypothesis, there is a k-quantifier, (3k-3)-dimensional problem in this class that requires time Ω(n^{k-1-o(1)}).
Towards identifying a single representative problem for this class, we study the existence of complete problems for the 3-quantifier setting (since 2-quantifier problems can already be solved in near-linear time O(nlog^{d-1} n), and k-quantifier problems with k > 3 reduce to the 3-quantifier case). We define a problem Vector Concatenated Non-Domination VCND_d (Given three sets of vectors X,Y and Z of dimension d,d and 2d, respectively, is there an x ∈ X and a y ∈ Y so that their concatenation x∘y is not dominated by any z ∈ Z, where vector u is dominated by vector v if u_i ≤ v_i for each coordinate 1 ≤ i ≤ d), and determine it as the "unique" candidate to be complete for this class (under fine-grained assumptions).

Haozhe An, Mohit Gurumukhani, Russell Impagliazzo, Michael Jaber, Marvin Künnemann, and Maria Paula Parga Nina. The Fine-Grained Complexity of Multi-Dimensional Ordering Properties. In 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 214, pp. 3:1-3:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{an_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.3, author = {An, Haozhe and Gurumukhani, Mohit and Impagliazzo, Russell and Jaber, Michael and K\"{u}nnemann, Marvin and Nina, Maria Paula Parga}, title = {{The Fine-Grained Complexity of Multi-Dimensional Ordering Properties}}, booktitle = {16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)}, pages = {3:1--3:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-216-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {214}, editor = {Golovach, Petr A. and Zehavi, Meirav}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-153869}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.3}, annote = {Keywords: Fine-grained complexity, First-order logic, Orthogonal vectors} }

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