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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

The k-Steiner-2NCS problem is as follows: Given a constant (positive integer) k, and an undirected connected graph G = (V,E), non-negative costs c on the edges, and a partition (T, V⧵T) of V into a set of terminals, T, and a set of non-terminals (or, Steiner nodes), where |T| = k, find a min-cost two-node connected subgraph that contains the terminals. The k-Steiner-2ECS problem has the same inputs; the algorithmic goal is to find a min-cost two-edge connected subgraph that contains the terminals.
We present a randomized polynomial-time algorithm for the unweighted k-Steiner-2NCS problem, and a randomized FPTAS for the weighted k-Steiner-2NCS problem. We obtain similar results for a capacitated generalization of the k-Steiner-2ECS problem.
Our methods build on results by Björklund, Husfeldt, and Taslaman (SODA 2012) that give a randomized polynomial-time algorithm for the unweighted k-Steiner-cycle problem; this problem has the same inputs as the unweighted k-Steiner-2NCS problem, and the algorithmic goal is to find a min-cost simple cycle C that contains the terminals (C may contain any number of Steiner nodes).

Ishan Bansal, Joe Cheriyan, Logan Grout, and Sharat Ibrahimpur. Algorithms for 2-Connected Network Design and Flexible Steiner Trees with a Constant Number of Terminals. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 14:1-14:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bansal_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.14, author = {Bansal, Ishan and Cheriyan, Joe and Grout, Logan and Ibrahimpur, Sharat}, title = {{Algorithms for 2-Connected Network Design and Flexible Steiner Trees with a Constant Number of Terminals}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {14:1--14:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188396}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.14}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, Capacitated network design, Network design, Parametrized algorithms, Steiner cycle problem, Steiner 2-edge connected subgraphs, Steiner 2-node connected subgraphs} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We address long-standing open questions raised by Williamson, Goemans, Vazirani and Mihail pertaining to the design of approximation algorithms for problems in network design via the primal-dual method (Combinatorica 15(3):435-454, 1995). Williamson et al. prove an approximation ratio of two for connectivity augmentation problems where the connectivity requirements can be specified by uncrossable functions. They state: "Extending our algorithm to handle non-uncrossable functions remains a challenging open problem. The key feature of uncrossable functions is that there exists an optimal dual solution which is laminar... A larger open issue is to explore further the power of the primal-dual approach for obtaining approximation algorithms for other combinatorial optimization problems."
Our main result proves a 16-approximation ratio via the primal-dual method for a class of functions that generalizes the notion of an uncrossable function. There exist instances that can be handled by our methods where none of the optimal dual solutions have a laminar support.
We present applications of our main result to three network-design problems.
1) A 16-approximation algorithm for augmenting the family of small cuts of a graph G. The previous best approximation ratio was O(log |V(G)|).
2) A 16⋅⌈k/u_min⌉-approximation algorithm for the Cap-k-ECSS problem which is as follows: Given an undirected graph G = (V,E) with edge costs c ∈ ℚ_{≥0}^E and edge capacities u ∈ ℤ_{≥0}^E, find a minimum cost subset of the edges F ⊆ E such that the capacity across any cut in (V,F) is at least k; u_min (respectively, u_max) denote the minimum (respectively, maximum) capacity of an edge in E, and w.l.o.g. u_max ≤ k. The previous best approximation ratio was min(O(log|V|), k, 2u_max).
3) A 20-approximation algorithm for the model of (p,2)-Flexible Graph Connectivity. The previous best approximation ratio was O(log|V(G)|), where G denotes the input graph.

Ishan Bansal, Joseph Cheriyan, Logan Grout, and Sharat Ibrahimpur. Improved Approximation Algorithms by Generalizing the Primal-Dual Method Beyond Uncrossable Functions. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 15:1-15:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bansal_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.15, author = {Bansal, Ishan and Cheriyan, Joseph and Grout, Logan and Ibrahimpur, Sharat}, title = {{Improved Approximation Algorithms by Generalizing the Primal-Dual Method Beyond Uncrossable Functions}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {15:1--15:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.15}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-180678}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.15}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, Edge-connectivity of graphs, f-Connectivity problem, Flexible Graph Connectivity, Minimum cuts, Network design, Primal-dual method, Small cuts} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Online caching is among the most fundamental and well-studied problems in the area of online algorithms. Innovative algorithmic ideas and analysis - including potential functions and primal-dual techniques - give insight into this still-growing area. Here, we introduce a new analysis technique that first uses a potential function to upper bound the cost of an online algorithm and then pairs that with a new dual-fitting strategy to lower bound the cost of an offline optimal algorithm. We apply these techniques to the Caching with Reserves problem recently introduced by Ibrahimpur et al. [Ibrahimpur et al., 2022] and give an O(log k)-competitive fractional online algorithm via a marking strategy, where k denotes the size of the cache. We also design a new online rounding algorithm that runs in polynomial time to obtain an O(log k)-competitive randomized integral algorithm. Additionally, we provide a new, simple proof for randomized marking for the classical unweighted paging problem.

Sharat Ibrahimpur, Manish Purohit, Zoya Svitkina, Erik Vee, and Joshua R. Wang. Efficient Caching with Reserves via Marking. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 80:1-80:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{ibrahimpur_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.80, author = {Ibrahimpur, Sharat and Purohit, Manish and Svitkina, Zoya and Vee, Erik and Wang, Joshua R.}, title = {{Efficient Caching with Reserves via Marking}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {80:1--80:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.80}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181328}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.80}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Online Algorithms, Caching} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

Caching is among the most well-studied topics in algorithm design, in part because it is such a fundamental component of many computer systems. Much of traditional caching research studies cache management for a single-user or single-processor environment. In this paper, we propose two related generalizations of the classical caching problem that capture issues that arise in a multi-user or multi-processor environment. In the caching with reserves problem, a caching algorithm is required to maintain at least k_i pages belonging to user i in the cache at any time, for some given reserve capacities k_i. In the public-private caching problem, the cache of total size k is partitioned into subcaches, a private cache of size k_i for each user i and a shared public cache usable by any user. In both of these models, as in the classical caching framework, the objective of the algorithm is to dynamically maintain the cache so as to minimize the total number of cache misses.
We show that caching with reserves and public-private caching models are equivalent up to constant factors, and thus focus on the former. Unlike classical caching, both of these models turn out to be NP-hard even in the offline setting, where the page sequence is known in advance. For the offline setting, we design a 2-approximation algorithm, whose analysis carefully keeps track of a potential function to bound the cost. In the online setting, we first design an O(ln k)-competitive fractional algorithm using the primal-dual framework, and then show how to convert it online to a randomized integral algorithm with the same guarantee.

Sharat Ibrahimpur, Manish Purohit, Zoya Svitkina, Erik Vee, and Joshua R. Wang. Caching with Reserves. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 52:1-52:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ibrahimpur_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.52, author = {Ibrahimpur, Sharat and Purohit, Manish and Svitkina, Zoya and Vee, Erik and Wang, Joshua R.}, title = {{Caching with Reserves}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {52:1--52:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.52}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171741}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.52}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Online Algorithms, Caching} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

We present approximation algorithms for several network design problems in the model of Flexible Graph Connectivity (Adjiashvili, Hommelsheim and Mühlenthaler, "Flexible Graph Connectivity", Math. Program. pp. 1-33 (2021), IPCO 2020: pp. 13-26). In an instance of the Flexible Graph Connectivity (FGC) problem, we have an undirected connected graph G = (V,E), a partition of E into a set of safe edges S and a set of unsafe edges U, and nonnegative costs {c_e}_{e ∈ E} on the edges. A subset F ⊆ E of edges is feasible for FGC if for any unsafe edge e ∈ F ∩ U, the subgraph (V,F⧵{e}) is connected. The algorithmic goal is to find a (feasible) solution F that minimizes c(F) = ∑_{e ∈ F} c_e. We present a simple 2-approximation algorithm for FGC via a reduction to the minimum-cost r-out 2-arborescence problem. This improves upon the 2.527-approximation algorithm of Adjiashvili et al.
For integers p ≥ 1 and q ≥ 0, the (p,q)-FGC problem is a generalization of FGC where we seek a minimum-cost subgraph H = (V,F) that remains p-edge connected against the failure of any set of at most q unsafe edges; that is, for any set F' ⊆ U with |F'| ≤ q, H-F' = (V, F ⧵ F') should be p-edge connected. Note that FGC corresponds to the (1,1)-FGC problem. We give approximation algorithms for two important special cases of (p,q)-FGC: (a) Our 2-approximation algorithm for FGC extends to a (k+1)-approximation algorithm for the (1,k)-FGC problem. (b) We present a 4-approximation algorithm for the (k,1)-FGC problem.
For the unweighted FGC problem, where each edge has unit cost, we give a 16/11-approximation algorithm. This improves on the result of Adjiashvili et al. for this problem.
The (p,q)-FGC model with p = 1 or q ≤ 1 can be cast as the Capacitated k-Connected Subgraph problem which is a special case of the well-known Capacitated Network Design problem. We denote the former problem by Cap-k-ECSS. An instance of this problem consists of an undirected graph G = (V,E), nonnegative integer edge-capacities {u_e}_{e ∈ E}, nonnegative edge-costs {c_e}_{e ∈ E}, and a positive integer k. The goal is to find a minimum-cost edge-set F ⊆ E such that every (non-trivial) cut of the capacitated subgraph H(V,F,u) has capacity at least k. We give a min(k, 2max_{e ∈ E} u_e)-approximation algorithm for this problem.

Sylvia Boyd, Joseph Cheriyan, Arash Haddadan, and Sharat Ibrahimpur. Approximation Algorithms for Flexible Graph Connectivity. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 9:1-9:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{boyd_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.9, author = {Boyd, Sylvia and Cheriyan, Joseph and Haddadan, Arash and Ibrahimpur, Sharat}, title = {{Approximation Algorithms for Flexible Graph Connectivity}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {9:1--9:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155206}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.9}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Combinatorial Optimization, Network Design, Edge-Connectivity of Graphs, Reliability of Networks} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

We consider the minimum-norm load-balancing (MinNormLB) problem, wherein there are n jobs, each of which needs to be assigned to one of m machines, and we are given the processing times {p_{ij}} of the jobs on the machines. We also have a monotone, symmetric norm f:ℝ^m → ℝ_{≥ 0}. We seek an assignment σ of jobs to machines that minimizes the f-norm of the induced load vector load->_σ ∈ ℝ_{≥ 0}^m, where load_σ(i) = ∑_{j:σ(j) = i}p_{ij}. This problem was introduced by [Deeparnab Chakrabarty and Chaitanya Swamy, 2019], and the current-best result for MinNormLB is a (4+ε)-approximation [Deeparnab Chakrabarty and Chaitanya Swamy, 2019]. In the stochastic version of MinNormLB, the job processing times are given by nonnegative random variables X_{ij}, and jobs are independent; the goal is to find an assignment σ that minimizes the expected f-norm of the induced random load vector.
We obtain results that (essentially) match the best-known guarantees for deterministic makespan minimization (MinNormLB with 𝓁_∞ norm). For MinNormLB, we obtain a (2+ε)-approximation for unrelated machines, and a PTAS for identical machines. For stochastic MinNormLB, we consider the setting where the X_{ij}s are Poisson random variables, denoted PoisNormLB. Our main result here is a novel and powerful reduction showing that, for any machine environment (e.g., unrelated/identical machines), any α-approximation algorithm for MinNormLB in that machine environment yields a randomized α(1+ε)-approximation for PoisNormLB in that machine environment. Combining this with our results for MinNormLB, we immediately obtain a (2+ε)-approximation for PoisNormLB on unrelated machines, and a PTAS for PoisNormLB on identical machines. The latter result substantially generalizes a PTAS for makespan minimization with Poisson jobs obtained recently by [Anindya De et al., 2020].

Sharat Ibrahimpur and Chaitanya Swamy. Minimum-Norm Load Balancing Is (Almost) as Easy as Minimizing Makespan. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 81:1-81:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{ibrahimpur_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.81, author = {Ibrahimpur, Sharat and Swamy, Chaitanya}, title = {{Minimum-Norm Load Balancing Is (Almost) as Easy as Minimizing Makespan}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {81:1--81:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.81}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141504}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.81}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation algorithms, Load balancing, Minimum-norm optimization, LP rounding} }

Document

APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 176, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)

Given a connected undirected graph G ̅ on n vertices, and non-negative edge costs c, the 2ECM problem is that of finding a 2-edge connected spanning multisubgraph of G ̅ of minimum cost. The natural linear program (LP) for 2ECM, which coincides with the subtour LP for the Traveling Salesman Problem on the metric closure of G ̅, gives a lower bound on the optimal cost. For instances where this LP is optimized by a half-integral solution x, Carr and Ravi (1998) showed that the integrality gap is at most 4/3: they show that the vector 4/3 x dominates a convex combination of incidence vectors of 2-edge connected spanning multisubgraphs of G ̅.
We present a simpler proof of the result due to Carr and Ravi by applying an extension of Lovász’s splitting-off theorem. Our proof naturally leads to a 4/3-approximation algorithm for half-integral instances. Given a half-integral solution x to the LP for 2ECM, we give an O(n²)-time algorithm to obtain a 2-edge connected spanning multisubgraph of G ̅ whose cost is at most 4/3 c^T x.

Sylvia Boyd, Joseph Cheriyan, Robert Cummings, Logan Grout, Sharat Ibrahimpur, Zoltán Szigeti, and Lu Wang. A 4/3-Approximation Algorithm for the Minimum 2-Edge Connected Multisubgraph Problem in the Half-Integral Case. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 176, pp. 61:1-61:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{boyd_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.61, author = {Boyd, Sylvia and Cheriyan, Joseph and Cummings, Robert and Grout, Logan and Ibrahimpur, Sharat and Szigeti, Zolt\'{a}n and Wang, Lu}, title = {{A 4/3-Approximation Algorithm for the Minimum 2-Edge Connected Multisubgraph Problem in the Half-Integral Case}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2020)}, pages = {61:1--61:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-164-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {176}, editor = {Byrka, Jaros{\l}aw and Meka, Raghu}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.61}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-126643}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2020.61}, annote = {Keywords: 2-Edge Connectivity, Approximation Algorithms, Subtour LP for TSP} }