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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

We study the complexity of classical constraint satisfaction problems on a 2D grid. Specifically, we consider the computational complexity of function versions of such problems, with the additional restriction that the constraints are translationally invariant, namely, the variables are located at the vertices of a 2D grid and the constraint between every pair of adjacent variables is the same in each dimension. The only input to the problem is thus the size of the grid. This problem is equivalent to one of the most interesting problems in classical physics, namely, computing the lowest energy of a classical system of particles on the grid. We provide a tight characterization of the complexity of this problem, and show that it is complete for the class FP^NEXP. Gottesman and Irani (FOCS 2009) also studied classical constraint satisfaction problems using this strong notion of translational-invariance; they show that the problem of deciding whether the cost of the optimal assignment is below a given threshold is NEXP-complete. Our result is thus a strengthening of their result from the decision version to the function version of the problem. Our result can also be viewed as a generalization to the translationally invariant setting, of Krentel’s famous result from 1988, showing that the function version of SAT is complete for the class FP^NP.
An essential ingredient in the proof is a study of the computational complexity of a gapped variant of the problem. We show that it is NEXP-hard to approximate the cost of the optimal assignment to within an additive error of Ω(N^(1/4)), where the grid size is N × N. To the best of our knowledge, no gapped result is known for CSPs on the grid, even in the non-translationally invariant case. This might be of independent interest. As a byproduct of our results, we also show that a decision version of the optimization problem which asks whether the cost of the optimal assignment is odd or even is also complete for P^NEXP.

Dorit Aharonov and Sandy Irani. Translationally Invariant Constraint Optimization Problems. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 23:1-23:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{aharonov_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.23, author = {Aharonov, Dorit and Irani, Sandy}, title = {{Translationally Invariant Constraint Optimization Problems}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {23:1--23:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182932}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.23}, annote = {Keywords: Constraint satisfaction, Tiling, Translational-invariance} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 234, 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)

It is a useful fact in classical computer science that many search problems are reducible to decision problems; this has led to decision problems being regarded as the de facto computational task to study in complexity theory. In this work, we explore search-to-decision reductions for quantum search problems, wherein a quantum algorithm makes queries to a classical decision oracle to output a desired quantum state. In particular, we focus on search-to-decision reductions for QMA, and show that there exists a quantum polynomial-time algorithm that can generate a witness for a QMA problem up to inverse polynomial precision by making one query to a PP decision oracle. We complement this result by showing that QMA-search does not reduce to QMA-decision in polynomial-time, relative to a quantum oracle.
We also explore the more general state synthesis problem, in which the goal is to efficiently synthesize a target state by making queries to a classical oracle encoding the state. We prove that there exists a classical oracle with which any quantum state can be synthesized to inverse polynomial precision using only one oracle query and to inverse exponential precision using two oracle queries. This answers an open question of Aaronson [Aaronson, 2016], who presented a state synthesis algorithm that makes O(n) queries to a classical oracle to prepare an n-qubit state, and asked if the query complexity could be made sublinear.

Sandy Irani, Anand Natarajan, Chinmay Nirkhe, Sujit Rao, and Henry Yuen. Quantum Search-To-Decision Reductions and the State Synthesis Problem. In 37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 234, pp. 5:1-5:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{irani_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2022.5, author = {Irani, Sandy and Natarajan, Anand and Nirkhe, Chinmay and Rao, Sujit and Yuen, Henry}, title = {{Quantum Search-To-Decision Reductions and the State Synthesis Problem}}, booktitle = {37th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2022)}, pages = {5:1--5:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-241-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {234}, editor = {Lovett, Shachar}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.5}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-165674}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2022.5}, annote = {Keywords: Search-to-decision, state synthesis, quantum computing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 64, 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)

We introduce the subset assignment problem in which items of varying sizes are placed in a set of bins with limited capacity. Items can be replicated and placed in any subset of the bins. Each (item, subset) pair has an associated cost. Not assigning an item to any of the bins is not free in general and can potentially be the most expensive option. The goal is to minimize the total cost of assigning items to subsets without exceeding the bin capacities. This problem is motivated by the design of caching systems composed of banks of memory with varying cost/performance specifications. The ability to replicate a data item in more than one memory bank can benefit the overall performance of the system with a faster recovery time in the event of a memory failure. For this setting, the number n of data objects (items) is very large and the number d of memory banks (bins) is a small constant (on the order of 3 or 4). Therefore, the goal is to determine an optimal assignment in time that minimizes dependence on n. The integral version of this problem is NP-hard since it is a generalization of the knapsack problem. We focus on an efficient solution to the LP relaxation as the number of fractionally assigned items will be at most d. If the data objects are small with respect to the size of the memory banks, the effect of excluding the fractionally assigned data items from the cache will be small. We give an algorithm that solves the LP relaxation and runs in time O(binom{3^d}{d+1} poly(d) n log(n) log(nC) log(Z)), where Z is the maximum item size and C the maximum storage cost.

Shahram Ghandeharizadeh, Sandy Irani, and Jenny Lam. The Subset Assignment Problem for Data Placement in Caches. In 27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 64, pp. 35:1-35:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{ghandeharizadeh_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.35, author = {Ghandeharizadeh, Shahram and Irani, Sandy and Lam, Jenny}, title = {{The Subset Assignment Problem for Data Placement in Caches}}, booktitle = {27th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2016)}, pages = {35:1--35:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-026-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {64}, editor = {Hong, Seok-Hee}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68058}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2016.35}, annote = {Keywords: Memory management, caching, simplex method, linear programming, min-cost flow} }

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