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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 281, 37th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2023)

Broadcast protocols enable a set of n parties to agree on the input of a designated sender, even in the face of malicious parties who collude to attack the protocol. In the honest-majority setting, a fruitful line of work harnessed randomization and cryptography to achieve low-communication broadcast protocols with sub-quadratic total communication and with "balanced" sub-linear communication cost per party. However, comparatively little is known in the dishonest-majority setting. Here, the most communication-efficient constructions are based on the protocol of Dolev and Strong (SICOMP '83), and sub-quadratic broadcast has not been achieved even using randomization and cryptography. On the other hand, the only nontrivial ω(n) communication lower bounds are restricted to deterministic protocols, or against strong adaptive adversaries that can perform "after the fact" removal of messages.
We provide communication lower bounds in this space, which hold against arbitrary cryptography and setup assumptions, as well as a simple protocol showing near tightness of our first bound.
- Static adversary. We demonstrate a tradeoff between resiliency and communication for randomized protocols secure against n-o(n) static corruptions. For example, Ω(n⋅ polylog(n)) messages are needed when the number of honest parties is n/polylog(n); Ω(n√n) messages are needed for O(√n) honest parties; and Ω(n²) messages are needed for O(1) honest parties.
Complementarily, we demonstrate broadcast with O(n⋅polylog(n)) total communication and balanced polylog(n) per-party cost, facing any constant fraction of static corruptions.
- Weakly adaptive adversary. Our second bound considers n/2 + k corruptions and a weakly adaptive adversary that cannot remove messages "after the fact." We show that any broadcast protocol within this setting can be attacked to force an arbitrary party to send messages to k other parties.
Our bound implies limitations on the feasibility of balanced low-communication protocols: For example, ruling out broadcast facing 51% corruptions, in which all non-sender parties have sublinear communication locality.

Erica Blum, Elette Boyle, Ran Cohen, and Chen-Da Liu-Zhang. Communication Lower Bounds for Cryptographic Broadcast Protocols. In 37th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 281, pp. 10:1-10:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{blum_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2023.10, author = {Blum, Erica and Boyle, Elette and Cohen, Ran and Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da}, title = {{Communication Lower Bounds for Cryptographic Broadcast Protocols}}, booktitle = {37th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2023)}, pages = {10:1--10:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-301-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {281}, editor = {Oshman, Rotem}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2023.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-191361}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2023.10}, annote = {Keywords: broadcast, communication complexity, lower bounds, dishonest majority} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 267, 4th Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2023)

Current protocols for Multi-Party Computation (MPC) consider the setting where all parties have access to similar resources. For example, all parties have access to channels bounded by the same worst-case delay upper bound Δ, and all channels have the same cost of communication. As a consequence, the overall protocol performance (resp. the communication cost) may be heavily affected by the slowest (resp. the most expensive) channel, even when most channels are fast (resp. cheap). Given the state of affairs, we initiate a systematic study of asymmetric MPC. In asymmetric MPC, the parties are divided into two categories: fast and slow parties, depending on whether they have access to high-end or low-end resources.
We investigate two different models. In the first, we consider asymmetric communication delays: Fast parties are connected via channels with small delay δ among themselves, while channels connected to (at least) one slow party have a large delay Δ ≫ δ. In the second model, we consider asymmetric communication costs: Fast parties benefit from channels with cheap communication, while channels connected to a slow party have an expensive communication. We provide a wide range of positive and negative results exploring the trade-offs between the achievable number of tolerated corruptions t and slow parties s, versus the round complexity and communication cost in each of the models. Among others, we achieve the following results. In the model with asymmetric communication delays, focusing on the information-theoretic (i-t) setting:
- An i-t asymmetric MPC protocol with security with abort as long as t+s < n and t < n/2, in a constant number of slow rounds.
- We show that achieving an i-t asymmetric MPC protocol for t+s = n and with number of slow rounds independent of the circuit size implies an i-t synchronous MPC protocol with round complexity independent of the circuit size, which is a major problem in the field of round-complexity of MPC.
- We identify a new primitive, asymmetric broadcast, that allows to consistently distribute a value among the fast parties, and at a later time the same value to slow parties. We completely characterize the feasibility of asymmetric broadcast by showing that it is possible if and only if 2t + s < n.
- An i-t asymmetric MPC protocol with guaranteed output delivery as long as t+s < n and t < n/2, in a number of slow rounds independent of the circuit size.
In the model with asymmetric communication cost, we achieve an asymmetric MPC protocol for security with abort for t+s < n and t < n/2, based on one-way functions (OWF). The protocol communicates a number of bits over expensive channels that is independent of the circuit size. We conjecture that assuming OWF is needed and further provide a partial result in this direction.

Vipul Goyal, Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, and Rafail Ostrovsky. Asymmetric Multi-Party Computation. In 4th Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 267, pp. 6:1-6:25, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{goyal_et_al:LIPIcs.ITC.2023.6, author = {Goyal, Vipul and Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da and Ostrovsky, Rafail}, title = {{Asymmetric Multi-Party Computation}}, booktitle = {4th Conference on Information-Theoretic Cryptography (ITC 2023)}, pages = {6:1--6:25}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-271-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {267}, editor = {Chung, Kai-Min}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2023.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183342}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITC.2023.6}, annote = {Keywords: multiparty computation, asymmetric, delays, communication} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 266, 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)

Quantum secret sharing (QSS) allows a dealer to distribute a secret quantum state among a set of parties in such a way that certain authorized subsets can reconstruct the secret, while unauthorized subsets obtain no information about it. Previous works on QSS for general access structures focused solely on the existence of perfectly secure schemes, and the share size of the known schemes is necessarily exponential even in cases where the access structure is computed by polynomial size monotone circuits. This stands in stark contrast to the classical setting, where polynomial-time computationally-secure secret sharing schemes have been long known for all access structures computed by polynomial-size monotone circuits under standard hardness assumptions, and one can even obtain shares which are much shorter than the secret (which is impossible with perfect security).
While QSS was introduced over twenty years ago, previous works only considered information-theoretic privacy. In this work, we initiate the study of computationally-secure QSS and show that computational assumptions help significantly in building QSS schemes, just as in the classical case. We present a simple compiler and use it to obtain a large variety results: We construct polynomial-time computationally-secure QSS schemes under standard hardness assumptions for a rich class of access structures. This includes many access structures for which previous results in QSS necessarily required exponential share size. In fact, we can go even further: We construct QSS schemes for which the size of the quantum shares is significantly smaller than the size of the secret. As in the classical setting, this is impossible with perfect security.
We also apply our compiler to obtain results beyond computational QSS. In the information-theoretic setting, we improve the share size of perfect QSS schemes for a large class of n-party access structures to 1.5^{n+o(n)}, improving upon best known schemes and matching the best known result for general access structures in the classical setting. Finally, among other things, we study the class of access structures which can be efficiently implemented when the quantum secret sharing scheme has access to a given number of copies of the secret, including all such functions in 𝖯 and NP.

Alper Çakan, Vipul Goyal, Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, and João Ribeiro. Computational Quantum Secret Sharing. In 18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 266, pp. 4:1-4:26, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{cakan_et_al:LIPIcs.TQC.2023.4, author = {\c{C}akan, Alper and Goyal, Vipul and Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da and Ribeiro, Jo\~{a}o}, title = {{Computational Quantum Secret Sharing}}, booktitle = {18th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (TQC 2023)}, pages = {4:1--4:26}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-283-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {266}, editor = {Fawzi, Omar and Walter, Michael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.4}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-183144}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2023.4}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum secret sharing, quantum cryptography} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

Multi-party quantum computation (MPQC) allows a set of parties to securely compute a quantum circuit over private quantum data. Current MPQC protocols rely on the fact that the network is synchronous, i.e., messages sent are guaranteed to be delivered within a known fixed delay upper bound, and unfortunately completely break down even when only a single message arrives late.
Motivated by real-world networks, the seminal work of Ben-Or, Canetti and Goldreich (STOC'93) initiated the study of multi-party computation for classical circuits over asynchronous networks, where the network delay can be arbitrary. In this work, we begin the study of asynchronous multi-party quantum computation (AMPQC) protocols, where the circuit to compute is quantum.
Our results completely characterize the optimal achievable corruption threshold: we present an n-party AMPQC protocol secure up to t < n/4 corruptions, and an impossibility result when t ≥ n/4 parties are corrupted. Remarkably, this characterization differs from the analogous classical setting, where the optimal corruption threshold is t < n/3.

Vipul Goyal, Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, Justin Raizes, and João Ribeiro. Asynchronous Multi-Party Quantum Computation. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 62:1-62:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{goyal_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.62, author = {Goyal, Vipul and Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da and Raizes, Justin and Ribeiro, Jo\~{a}o}, title = {{Asynchronous Multi-Party Quantum Computation}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {62:1--62:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.62}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175655}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.62}, annote = {Keywords: Quantum Cryptography, Multiparty Computation, Asynchronous} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 184, 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)

Classical protocols for reliable broadcast and consensus provide security guarantees as long as the number of corrupted parties f is bounded by a single given threshold t. If f > t, these protocols are completely deemed insecure. We consider the relaxed notion of multi-threshold reliable broadcast and consensus where validity, consistency and termination are guaranteed as long as f ≤ t_v, f ≤ t_c and f ≤ t_t respectively. For consensus, we consider both variants of (1-ε)-consensus and almost-surely terminating consensus, where termination is guaranteed with probability (1-ε) and 1, respectively. We give a very complete characterization for these primitives in the asynchronous setting and with no signatures:
- Multi-threshold reliable broadcast is possible if and only if max{t_c,t_v} + 2t_t < n.
- Multi-threshold almost-surely consensus is possible if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n, 2t_v + t_t < n and t_t < n/3. Assuming a global coin, it is possible if and only if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n and 2t_v + t_t < n.
- Multi-threshold (1-ε)-consensus is possible if and only if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n and 2t_v + t_t < n.

Martin Hirt, Ard Kastrati, and Chen-Da Liu-Zhang. Multi-Threshold Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast and Consensus. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 6:1-6:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{hirt_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.6, author = {Hirt, Martin and Kastrati, Ard and Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da}, title = {{Multi-Threshold Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast and Consensus}}, booktitle = {24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)}, pages = {6:1--6:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-176-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {184}, editor = {Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.6}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-134917}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.6}, annote = {Keywords: broadcast, byzantine agreement, multi-threshold} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 184, 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)

Broadcast is a primitive which allows a specific party to distribute a message consistently among n parties, even if up to t parties exhibit malicious behaviour. In the classical model with a complete network of bilateral authenticated channels, the seminal result of Pease et al. [Pease et al., 1980] shows that broadcast is achievable if and only if t < n/3. There are two generalizations suggested for the broadcast problem - with respect to the adversarial model and the communication model. Fitzi and Maurer [Fitzi and Maurer, 1998] consider a (non-threshold) general adversary that is characterized by the subsets of parties that could be corrupted, and show that broadcast can be realized from bilateral channels if and only if the union of no three possible corrupted sets equals the entire set of n parties. On the other hand, Considine et al. [Considine et al., 2005] extend the standard model of bilateral channels with the existence of b-minicast channels that allow to locally broadcast among any subset of b parties; the authors show that in this enhanced model of communication, secure broadcast tolerating up to t corrupted parties is possible if and only if t < (b-1)/(b+1)n. These generalizations are unified in the work by Raykov [Raykov P., 2015], where a tight condition on the possible corrupted sets is presented such that broadcast is achievable from a complete set of b-minicasts.
This paper investigates the achievability of broadcast in general networks, i.e., networks where only some subsets of minicast channels may be available, thereby addressing open problems posed in [Jaffe et al., 2012; Raykov P., 2015]. To that end, we propose a hierarchy over all possible general adversaries, and identify for each class of general adversaries 1) a set of minicast channels that are necessary to achieve broadcast and 2) a set of minicast channels that are sufficient to achieve broadcast. In particular, this allows us to derive bounds on the amount of b-minicasts that are necessary and that suffice towards constructing broadcast in general b-minicast networks.

Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, Varun Maram, and Ueli Maurer. On Broadcast in Generalized Network and Adversarial Models. In 24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 184, pp. 25:1-25:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{liuzhang_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.25, author = {Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da and Maram, Varun and Maurer, Ueli}, title = {{On Broadcast in Generalized Network and Adversarial Models}}, booktitle = {24th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2020)}, pages = {25:1--25:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-176-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {184}, editor = {Bramas, Quentin and Oshman, Rotem and Romano, Paolo}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135108}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2020.25}, annote = {Keywords: broadcast, partial broadcast, minicast, general adversary, general network} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

Broadcast is a fundamental primitive in distributed computing. It allows a sender to consistently distribute a message among n recipients. The seminal result of Pease et al. [JACM'80] shows that in a complete network of synchronous bilateral channels, broadcast is achievable if and only if the number of corruptions is bounded by t < n/3. To overcome this bound, a fascinating line of works, Fitzi and Maurer [STOC'00], Considine et al. [JC'05], and Raykov [ICALP'15], proposed strengthening the communication network by assuming partial synchronous broadcast channels, which guarantee consistency among a subset of recipients.
We extend this line of research to the asynchronous setting. We consider reliable broadcast protocols assuming a communication network which provides each subset of b parties with reliable broadcast channels. A natural question is to investigate the trade-off between the size b and the corruption threshold t. We answer this question by showing feasibility and impossibility results:
- A reliable broadcast protocol Π_{RBC} that:
- For 3 ≤ b ≤ 4, is secure up to t < n/2 corruptions.
- For b > 4 even, is secure up to t < ((b-4)/(b-2) n + 8/(b-2)) corruptions.
- For b > 4 odd, is secure up to t < ((b-3)/(b-1) n + 6/(b-1)) corruptions.
- A nonstop reliable broadcast Π_{nRBC}, where parties are guaranteed to obtain output as in reliable broadcast but may need to run forever, secure up to t < (b-1)/(b+1) n corruptions.
- There is no protocol for (nonstop) reliable broadcast secure up to t ≥ (b-1)/(b+1) n corruptions, implying that Π_{RBC} is an asymptotically optimal reliable broadcast protocol, and Π_{nRBC} is an optimal nonstop reliable broadcast protocol.

Diana Ghinea, Martin Hirt, and Chen-Da Liu-Zhang. From Partial to Global Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 29:1-29:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{ghinea_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.29, author = {Ghinea, Diana and Hirt, Martin and Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da}, title = {{From Partial to Global Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {29:1--29:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131074}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.29}, annote = {Keywords: asynchronous broadcast, partial broadcast} }

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Brief Announcement

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 179, 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)

Classical protocols for reliable broadcast and consensus provide security guarantees as long as the number of corrupted parties f is bounded by a single given threshold t. If f > t, these protocols are completely deemed insecure. We consider the relaxed notion of multi-threshold reliable broadcast and consensus where validity, consistency and termination are guaranteed as long as f ≤ t_v, f ≤ t_c and f ≤ t_t respectively. For consensus, we consider both variants of (1-ε)-consensus and almost-surely terminating consensus, where termination is guaranteed with probability (1-ε) and 1, respectively. We give a very complete characterization for these primitives in the asynchronous setting and with no signatures:
- Multi-threshold reliable broadcast is possible if and only if max{t_c,t_v} + 2t_t < n.
- Multi-threshold almost-surely consensus is possible if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n, 2t_v + t_t < n and t_t < n/3. Assuming a global coin, it is possible if and only if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n and 2t_v + t_t < n.
- Multi-threshold (1-ε)-consensus is possible if and only if max{t_c, t_v} + 2t_t < n and 2t_v + t_t < n.

Martin Hirt, Ard Kastrati, and Chen-Da Liu-Zhang. Brief Announcement: Multi-Threshold Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast and Consensus. In 34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 179, pp. 48:1-48:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{hirt_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2020.48, author = {Hirt, Martin and Kastrati, Ard and Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da}, title = {{Brief Announcement: Multi-Threshold Asynchronous Reliable Broadcast and Consensus}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2020)}, pages = {48:1--48:3}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-168-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {179}, editor = {Attiya, Hagit}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.48}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-131267}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2020.48}, annote = {Keywords: broadcast, byzantine agreement, multi-threshold} }

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Brief Announcement

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 146, 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)

Byzantine broadcast is a primitive which allows a specific party to distribute a message consistently among n parties, even if up to t parties exhibit malicious behaviour. In the classical model with a complete network of bilateral authenticated channels, the seminal result of Pease et al. [Pease et al., 1980] shows that broadcast is achievable if and only if t < n/3. There are two generalizations suggested for the broadcast problem - w.r.t. the adversarial model and the communication model. Fitzi and Maurer [Fitzi and Maurer, 1998] consider a (non-threshold) general adversary that is characterized by the subsets of parties that could be corrupted, and show that broadcast can be realized from bilateral channels if and only if the union of no three possible corrupted sets equals the entire set of n parties. On the other hand, Considine et al. [Considine et al., 2005] extend the standard model of bilateral channels with the existence of b-minicast channels that allow to locally broadcast among any subset of b parties; the authors show that in this enhanced model of communication, secure broadcast tolerating up to t corrupted parties is possible if and only if t < (b-1)/(b+1) n. These generalizations are unified in the work by Raykov [Raykov P., 2015], where a tight condition on the possible corrupted sets such that broadcast is achievable from a complete set of b-minicasts is shown.
This paper investigates the achievability of broadcast in general networks, i.e., networks where only some subsets of minicast channels may be available, thereby addressing open problems posed in [Jaffe et al., 2012; Raykov P., 2015]. Our contributions include: 1) proposing a hierarchy over all possible general adversaries for a clean analysis of the broadcast problem in general networks, 2) showing the infeasibility of a prominent technique - used to achieve broadcast in general 3-minicast networks [Ravikant et al., 2004] - with regard to higher b-minicast networks, and 3) providing some necessary conditions on general networks for broadcast to be possible while tolerating general adversaries.

Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, Varun Maram, and Ueli Maurer. Brief Announcement: Towards Byzantine Broadcast in Generalized Communication and Adversarial Models. In 33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 146, pp. 47:1-47:3, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{liuzhang_et_al:LIPIcs.DISC.2019.47, author = {Liu-Zhang, Chen-Da and Maram, Varun and Maurer, Ueli}, title = {{Brief Announcement: Towards Byzantine Broadcast in Generalized Communication and Adversarial Models}}, booktitle = {33rd International Symposium on Distributed Computing (DISC 2019)}, pages = {47:1--47:3}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-126-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {146}, editor = {Suomela, Jukka}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-113540}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.DISC.2019.47}, annote = {Keywords: broadcast, partial broadcast, minicast, general adversary, general network} }