Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 306, 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)

We investigate the compression sensitivity [Akagi et al., 2023] of lex-parse [Navarro et al., 2021] for two operations: (1) single character edit and (2) modification of the alphabet ordering, and give tight upper and lower bounds for both operations (i.e., we show Θ(log n) bounds for strings of length n). For both lower bounds, we use the family of Fibonacci words. For the bounds on edit operations, our analysis makes heavy use of properties of the Lyndon factorization of Fibonacci words to characterize the structure of lex-parse.

Yuto Nakashima, Dominik Köppl, Mitsuru Funakoshi, Shunsuke Inenaga, and Hideo Bannai. Edit and Alphabet-Ordering Sensitivity of Lex-Parse. In 49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 306, pp. 75:1-75:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{nakashima_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.75, author = {Nakashima, Yuto and K\"{o}ppl, Dominik and Funakoshi, Mitsuru and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo}, title = {{Edit and Alphabet-Ordering Sensitivity of Lex-Parse}}, booktitle = {49th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2024)}, pages = {75:1--75:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-335-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {306}, editor = {Kr\'{a}lovi\v{c}, Rastislav and Ku\v{c}era, Anton{\'\i}n}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.75}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-206314}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2024.75}, annote = {Keywords: Compression sensitivity, Lex-parse, Fibonacci words} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 259, 34th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2023)

LZ-End is a variant of the well-known Lempel-Ziv parsing family such that each phrase of the parsing has a previous occurrence, with the additional constraint that the previous occurrence must end at the end of a previous phrase. LZ-End was initially proposed as a greedy parsing, where each phrase is determined greedily from left to right, as the longest factor that satisfies the above constraint [Kreft & Navarro, 2010]. In this work, we consider an optimal LZ-End parsing that has the minimum number of phrases in such parsings. We show that a decision version of computing the optimal LZ-End parsing is NP-complete by showing a reduction from the vertex cover problem. Moreover, we give a MAX-SAT formulation for the optimal LZ-End parsing adapting an approach for computing various NP-hard repetitiveness measures recently presented by [Bannai et al., 2022]. We also consider the approximation ratio of the size of greedy LZ-End parsing to the size of the optimal LZ-End parsing, and give a lower bound of the ratio which asymptotically approaches 2.

Hideo Bannai, Mitsuru Funakoshi, Kazuhiro Kurita, Yuto Nakashima, Kazuhisa Seto, and Takeaki Uno. Optimal LZ-End Parsing Is Hard. In 34th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 259, pp. 3:1-3:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bannai_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2023.3, author = {Bannai, Hideo and Funakoshi, Mitsuru and Kurita, Kazuhiro and Nakashima, Yuto and Seto, Kazuhisa and Uno, Takeaki}, title = {{Optimal LZ-End Parsing Is Hard}}, booktitle = {34th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2023)}, pages = {3:1--3:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-276-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {259}, editor = {Bulteau, Laurent and Lipt\'{a}k, Zsuzsanna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2023.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-179571}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2023.3}, annote = {Keywords: Data Compression, LZ-End, Repetitiveness measures} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 223, 33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022)

A string w is called a minimal absent word for another string T if w does not occur (as a substring) in T and all proper substrings of w occur in T. State-of-the-art data structures for reporting the set MAW(T) of MAWs from a given string T of length n require O(n) space, can be built in O(n) time, and can report all MAWs in O(|MAW(T)|) time upon a query. This paper initiates the problem of computing MAWs from a compressed representation of a string. In particular, we focus on the most basic compressed representation of a string, run-length encoding (RLE), which represents each maximal run of the same characters a by a^p where p is the length of the run. Let m be the RLE-size of string T. After categorizing the MAWs into five disjoint sets ℳ₁, ℳ₂, ℳ₃, ℳ₄, ℳ₅ using RLE, we present matching upper and lower bounds for the number of MAWs in ℳ_i for i = 1,2,4,5 in terms of RLE-size m, except for ℳ₃ whose size is unbounded by m. We then present a compact O(m)-space data structure that can report all MAWs in optimal O(|MAW(T)|) time.

Tooru Akagi, Kouta Okabe, Takuya Mieno, Yuto Nakashima, and Shunsuke Inenaga. Minimal Absent Words on Run-Length Encoded Strings. In 33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 223, pp. 27:1-27:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{akagi_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2022.27, author = {Akagi, Tooru and Okabe, Kouta and Mieno, Takuya and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke}, title = {{Minimal Absent Words on Run-Length Encoded Strings}}, booktitle = {33rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2022)}, pages = {27:1--27:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-234-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {223}, editor = {Bannai, Hideo and Holub, Jan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2022.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-161545}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2022.27}, annote = {Keywords: string algorithms, combinatorics on words, minimal absent words, run-length encoding} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 161, 31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020)

The equidistant subsequence pattern matching problem is considered. Given a pattern string P and a text string T, we say that P is an equidistant subsequence of T if P is a subsequence of the text such that consecutive symbols of P in the occurrence are equally spaced. We can consider the problem of equidistant subsequences as generalizations of (sub-)cadences. We give bit-parallel algorithms that yield o(n²) time algorithms for finding k-(sub-)cadences and equidistant subsequences. Furthermore, O(nlog² n) and O(nlog n) time algorithms, respectively for equidistant and Abelian equidistant matching for the case |P| = 3, are shown. The algorithms make use of a technique that was recently introduced which can efficiently compute convolutions with linear constraints.

Mitsuru Funakoshi, Yuto Nakashima, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, Masayuki Takeda, and Ayumi Shinohara. Detecting k-(Sub-)Cadences and Equidistant Subsequence Occurrences. In 31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 161, pp. 12:1-12:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{funakoshi_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2020.12, author = {Funakoshi, Mitsuru and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki and Shinohara, Ayumi}, title = {{Detecting k-(Sub-)Cadences and Equidistant Subsequence Occurrences}}, booktitle = {31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020)}, pages = {12:1--12:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-149-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {161}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Weimann, Oren}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2020.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121375}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2020.12}, annote = {Keywords: string algorithms, pattern matching, bit parallelism, subsequences, cadences} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 161, 31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020)

Two strings x and y over Σ ∪ Π of equal length are said to parameterized match (p-match) if there is a renaming bijection f:Σ ∪ Π → Σ ∪ Π that is identity on Σ and transforms x to y (or vice versa). The p-matching problem is to look for substrings in a text that p-match a given pattern. In this paper, we propose parameterized suffix automata (p-suffix automata) and parameterized directed acyclic word graphs (PDAWGs) which are the p-matching versions of suffix automata and DAWGs. While suffix automata and DAWGs are equivalent for standard strings, we show that p-suffix automata can have Θ(n²) nodes and edges but PDAWGs have only O(n) nodes and edges, where n is the length of an input string. We also give O(n |Π| log (|Π| + |Σ|))-time O(n)-space algorithm that builds the PDAWG in a left-to-right online manner. As a byproduct, it is shown that the parameterized suffix tree for the reversed string can also be built in the same time and space, in a right-to-left online manner.

Katsuhito Nakashima, Noriki Fujisato, Diptarama Hendrian, Yuto Nakashima, Ryo Yoshinaka, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, Ayumi Shinohara, and Masayuki Takeda. DAWGs for Parameterized Matching: Online Construction and Related Indexing Structures. In 31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 161, pp. 26:1-26:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{nakashima_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2020.26, author = {Nakashima, Katsuhito and Fujisato, Noriki and Hendrian, Diptarama and Nakashima, Yuto and Yoshinaka, Ryo and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Shinohara, Ayumi and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{DAWGs for Parameterized Matching: Online Construction and Related Indexing Structures}}, booktitle = {31st Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2020)}, pages = {26:1--26:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-149-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {161}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Weimann, Oren}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2020.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-121512}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2020.26}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized matching, suffix trees, DAWGs, suffix automata} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 149, 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)

For a set D of documents and a positive integer d, a string w is said to be d-left-right maximal, if (1) w occurs in at least d documents in D, and (2) any proper superstring of w occurs in less than d documents. The left-right-maximal generic words problem is, given a set D of documents, to preprocess D so that for any string p and for any positive integer d, all the superstrings of p that are d-left-right maximal can be answered quickly. In this paper, we present an O(n log m) space data structure (in words) which answers queries in O(|p| + o log log m) time, where n is the total length of documents in D, m is the number of documents in D and o is the number of outputs. Our solution improves the previous one by Nishimoto et al. (PSC 2015), which uses an O(n log n) space data structure answering queries in O(|p|+ r * log n + o * log^2 n) time, where r is the number of right-extensions q of p occurring in at least d documents such that any proper right extension of q occurs in less than d documents.

Yuta Fujishige, Yuto Nakashima, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. An Improved Data Structure for Left-Right Maximal Generic Words Problem. In 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 149, pp. 40:1-40:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{fujishige_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.40, author = {Fujishige, Yuta and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{An Improved Data Structure for Left-Right Maximal Generic Words Problem}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)}, pages = {40:1--40:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-130-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {149}, editor = {Lu, Pinyan and Zhang, Guochuan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115366}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.40}, annote = {Keywords: generic words, suffix trees, string processing algorithms} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 128, 30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019)

A maximal repetition, or run, in a string, is a maximal periodic substring whose smallest period is at most half the length of the substring. In this paper, we consider runs that correspond to a path on a trie, or in other words, on a rooted edge-labeled tree where the endpoints of the path must be a descendant/ancestor of the other. For a trie with n edges, we show that the number of runs is less than n. We also show an O(n sqrt{log n}log log n) time and O(n) space algorithm for counting and finding the shallower endpoint of all runs. We further show an O(n log n) time and O(n) space algorithm for finding both endpoints of all runs. We also discuss how to improve the running time even more.

Ryo Sugahara, Yuto Nakashima, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. Computing Runs on a Trie. In 30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 128, pp. 23:1-23:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{sugahara_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2019.23, author = {Sugahara, Ryo and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{Computing Runs on a Trie}}, booktitle = {30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019)}, pages = {23:1--23:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-103-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {128}, editor = {Pisanti, Nadia and P. Pissis, Solon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2019.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104943}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2019.23}, annote = {Keywords: runs, Lyndon words} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 128, 30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019)

Palindromes are important objects in strings which have been extensively studied from combinatorial, algorithmic, and bioinformatics points of views. Manacher [J. ACM 1975] proposed a seminal algorithm that computes the longest substring palindromes (LSPals) of a given string in O(n) time, where n is the length of the string. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding the LSPal after the string is edited. We present an algorithm that uses O(n) time and space for preprocessing, and answers the length of the LSPals in O(l + log log n) time, after a substring in T is replaced by a string of arbitrary length l. This outperforms the query algorithm proposed in our previous work [CPM 2018] that uses O(l + log n) time for each query.

Mitsuru Funakoshi, Yuto Nakashima, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. Faster Queries for Longest Substring Palindrome After Block Edit. In 30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 128, pp. 27:1-27:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{funakoshi_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2019.27, author = {Funakoshi, Mitsuru and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{Faster Queries for Longest Substring Palindrome After Block Edit}}, booktitle = {30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019)}, pages = {27:1--27:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-103-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {128}, editor = {Pisanti, Nadia and P. Pissis, Solon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2019.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-104989}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2019.27}, annote = {Keywords: palindromes, string algorithm, periodicity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 128, 30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019)

Lempel-Ziv (LZ) factorization and Lyndon factorization are well-known factorizations of strings. Recently, Kärkkäinen et al. studied the relation between the sizes of the two factorizations, and showed that the size of the Lyndon factorization is always smaller than twice the size of the non-overlapping LZ factorization [STACS 2017]. In this paper, we consider a similar problem for the overlapping version of the LZ factorization. Since the size of the overlapping LZ factorization is always smaller than the size of the non-overlapping LZ factorization and, in fact, can even be an O(log n) factor smaller, it is not immediately clear whether a similar bound as in previous work would hold. Nevertheless, in this paper, we prove that the size of the Lyndon factorization is always smaller than four times the size of the overlapping LZ factorization.

Yuki Urabe, Yuto Nakashima, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. On the Size of Overlapping Lempel-Ziv and Lyndon Factorizations. In 30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 128, pp. 29:1-29:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{urabe_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2019.29, author = {Urabe, Yuki and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{On the Size of Overlapping Lempel-Ziv and Lyndon Factorizations}}, booktitle = {30th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2019)}, pages = {29:1--29:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-103-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {128}, editor = {Pisanti, Nadia and P. Pissis, Solon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2019.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-105008}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2019.29}, annote = {Keywords: Lyndon factorization, Lyndon words, Lempel-Ziv factorization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 105, 29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018)

An Elastic-Degenerate String [Iliopoulus et al., LATA 2017] is a sequence of sets of strings, which was recently proposed as a way to model a set of similar sequences. We give an online algorithm for the Elastic-Degenerate String Matching (EDSM) problem that runs in O(nm sqrt{m log m} + N) time and O(m) working space, where n is the number of elastic degenerate segments of the text, N is the total length of all strings in the text, and m is the length of the pattern. This improves the previous algorithm by Grossi et al. [CPM 2017] that runs in O(nm^2 + N) time.

Kotaro Aoyama, Yuto Nakashima, Tomohiro I, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. Faster Online Elastic Degenerate String Matching. In 29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 105, pp. 9:1-9:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{aoyama_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2018.9, author = {Aoyama, Kotaro and Nakashima, Yuto and I, Tomohiro and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{Faster Online Elastic Degenerate String Matching}}, booktitle = {29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018)}, pages = {9:1--9:10}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-074-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {105}, editor = {Navarro, Gonzalo and Sankoff, David and Zhu, Binhai}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2018.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-87016}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2018.9}, annote = {Keywords: elastic degenerate pattern matching, boolean convolution} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 105, 29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018)

It is known that the length of the longest substring palindromes (LSPals) of a given string T of length n can be computed in O(n) time by Manacher's algorithm [J. ACM '75]. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding the LSPal after the string is edited. We present an algorithm that uses O(n) time and space for preprocessing, and answers the length of the LSPals in O(log (min {sigma, log n })) time after single character substitution, insertion, or deletion, where sigma denotes the number of distinct characters appearing in T. We also propose an algorithm that uses O(n) time and space for preprocessing, and answers the length of the LSPals in O(l + log n) time, after an existing substring in T is replaced by a string of arbitrary length l.

Mitsuru Funakoshi, Yuto Nakashima, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. Longest substring palindrome after edit. In 29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 105, pp. 12:1-12:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{funakoshi_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2018.12, author = {Funakoshi, Mitsuru and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{Longest substring palindrome after edit}}, booktitle = {29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018)}, pages = {12:1--12:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-074-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {105}, editor = {Navarro, Gonzalo and Sankoff, David and Zhu, Binhai}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2018.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-86977}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2018.12}, annote = {Keywords: maximal palindromes, edit operations, periodicity, suffix trees} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 105, 29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018)

The longest Lyndon substring of a string T is the longest substring of T which is a Lyndon word. LLS(T) denotes the length of the longest Lyndon substring of a string T. In this paper, we consider computing LLS(T') where T' is an edited string formed from T. After O(n) time and space preprocessing, our algorithm returns LLS(T') in O(log n) time for any single character edit. We also consider a version of the problem with block edits, i.e., a substring of T is replaced by a given string of length l. After O(n) time and space preprocessing, our algorithm returns LLS(T') in O(l log sigma + log n) time for any block edit where sigma is the number of distinct characters in T. We can modify our algorithm so as to output all the longest Lyndon substrings of T' for both problems.

Yuki Urabe, Yuto Nakashima, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. Longest Lyndon Substring After Edit. In 29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 105, pp. 19:1-19:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{urabe_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2018.19, author = {Urabe, Yuki and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{Longest Lyndon Substring After Edit}}, booktitle = {29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018)}, pages = {19:1--19:10}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-074-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {105}, editor = {Navarro, Gonzalo and Sankoff, David and Zhu, Binhai}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2018.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-86913}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2018.19}, annote = {Keywords: Lyndon word, Lyndon factorization, Lyndon tree, Edit operation} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 105, 29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018)

We revisit the problem of computing the Lyndon factorization of a string w of length N which is given as a straight line program (SLP) of size n. For this problem, we show a new algorithm which runs in O(P(n, N) + Q(n, N)n log log N) time and O(n log N + S(n, N)) space where P(n, N), S(n,N), Q(n,N) are respectively the pre-processing time, space, and query time of a data structure for longest common extensions (LCE) on SLPs. Our algorithm improves the algorithm proposed by I et al. (TCS '17), and can be more efficient than the O(N)-time solution by Duval (J. Algorithms '83) when w is highly compressible.

Isamu Furuya, Yuto Nakashima, Tomohiro I, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. Lyndon Factorization of Grammar Compressed Texts Revisited. In 29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 105, pp. 24:1-24:10, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{furuya_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2018.24, author = {Furuya, Isamu and Nakashima, Yuto and I, Tomohiro and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{Lyndon Factorization of Grammar Compressed Texts Revisited}}, booktitle = {29th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2018)}, pages = {24:1--24:10}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-074-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {105}, editor = {Navarro, Gonzalo and Sankoff, David and Zhu, Binhai}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2018.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-86855}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2018.24}, annote = {Keywords: Lyndon word, Lyndon factorization, Straight line program} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 92, 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)

We consider the problem of computing all maximal repetitions contained in a string that is given in run-length encoding.
Given a run-length encoding of a string, we show that the maximum number of maximal repetitions contained in the string is at most m+k-1, where m is the size of the run-length encoding, and k is the number of run-length factors whose exponent is at least 2.
We also show an algorithm for computing all maximal repetitions in O(m \alpha(m)) time and O(m) space, where \alpha denotes the inverse Ackermann function.

Yuta Fujishige, Yuto Nakashima, Shunsuke Inenaga, Hideo Bannai, and Masayuki Takeda. Almost Linear Time Computation of Maximal Repetitions in Run Length Encoded Strings. In 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 92, pp. 33:1-33:12, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{fujishige_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.33, author = {Fujishige, Yuta and Nakashima, Yuto and Inenaga, Shunsuke and Bannai, Hideo and Takeda, Masayuki}, title = {{Almost Linear Time Computation of Maximal Repetitions in Run Length Encoded Strings}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)}, pages = {33:1--33:12}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-054-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {92}, editor = {Okamoto, Yoshio and Tokuyama, Takeshi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-82610}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.33}, annote = {Keywords: maximal repetitions,run length encoding} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 66, 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)

Lyndon factorization and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) factorization are both important tools for analysing the structure and complexity of strings, but their combinatorial structure is very different. In this paper, we establish the first direct connection between the two by showing that while the Lyndon factorization can be bigger than the non-overlapping LZ factorization (which we demonstrate by describing a new, non-trivial family of strings) it is always less than twice the size.

Juha Kärkkäinen, Dominik Kempa, Yuto Nakashima, Simon J. Puglisi, and Arseny M. Shur. On the Size of Lempel-Ziv and Lyndon Factorizations. In 34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 66, pp. 45:1-45:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{karkkainen_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2017.45, author = {K\"{a}rkk\"{a}inen, Juha and Kempa, Dominik and Nakashima, Yuto and Puglisi, Simon J. and Shur, Arseny M.}, title = {{On the Size of Lempel-Ziv and Lyndon Factorizations}}, booktitle = {34th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2017)}, pages = {45:1--45:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-028-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {66}, editor = {Vollmer, Heribert and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.45}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-69878}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2017.45}, annote = {Keywords: Lempel-Ziv factorization, Lempel-Ziv parsing, LZ, Lyndon word, Lyndon factorization, Standard factorization} }

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