Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

A binary code Enc:{0,1}^k → {0,1}ⁿ is (1/2-ε,L)-list decodable if for every w ∈ {0,1}ⁿ, there exists a set List(w) of size at most L, containing all messages m ∈ {0,1}^k such that the relative Hamming distance between Enc(m) and w is at most 1/2-ε. A q-query local list-decoder for Enc is a randomized procedure Dec that when given oracle access to a string w, makes at most q oracle calls, and for every message m ∈ List(w), with high probability, there exists j ∈ [L] such that for every i ∈ [k], with high probability, Dec^w(i,j) = m_i.
We prove lower bounds on q, that apply even if L is huge (say L = 2^{k^{0.9}}) and the rate of Enc is small (meaning that n ≥ 2^{k}):
- For ε = 1/k^{ν} for some constant 0 < ν < 1, we prove a lower bound of q = Ω(log(1/δ)/ε²), where δ is the error probability of the local list-decoder. This bound is tight as there is a matching upper bound by Goldreich and Levin (STOC 1989) of q = O(log(1/δ)/ε²) for the Hadamard code (which has n = 2^k). This bound extends an earlier work of Grinberg, Shaltiel and Viola (FOCS 2018) which only works if n ≤ 2^{k^ν} and the number of coins tossed by Dec is small (and therefore does not apply to the Hadamard code, or other codes with low rate).
- For smaller ε, we prove a lower bound of roughly q = Ω(1/(√ε)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first lower bound on the number of queries of local list-decoders that gives q ≥ k for small ε.
Local list-decoders with small ε form the key component in the celebrated theorem of Goldreich and Levin that extracts a hard-core predicate from a one-way function. We show that black-box proofs cannot improve the Goldreich-Levin theorem and produce a hard-core predicate that is hard to predict with probability 1/2 + 1/𝓁^ω(1) when provided with a one-way function f:{0,1}^𝓁 → {0,1}^𝓁, where f is such that circuits of size poly(𝓁) cannot invert f with probability ρ = 1/2^√𝓁 (or even ρ = 1/2^Ω(𝓁)). This limitation applies to any proof by black-box reduction (even if the reduction is allowed to use nonuniformity and has oracle access to f).

Noga Ron-Zewi, Ronen Shaltiel, and Nithin Varma. Query Complexity Lower Bounds for Local List-Decoding and Hard-Core Predicates (Even for Small Rate and Huge Lists). In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 33:1-33:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{ronzewi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.33, author = {Ron-Zewi, Noga and Shaltiel, Ronen and Varma, Nithin}, title = {{Query Complexity Lower Bounds for Local List-Decoding and Hard-Core Predicates (Even for Small Rate and Huge Lists)}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {33:1--33:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135724}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.33}, annote = {Keywords: Local list-decoding, Hard-core predicates, Black-box reduction, Hadamard code} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

We continue the study of list recovery properties of high-rate tensor codes, initiated by Hemenway, Ron-Zewi, and Wootters (FOCS'17). In that work it was shown that the tensor product of an efficient (poly-time) high-rate globally list recoverable code is approximately locally list recoverable, as well as globally list recoverable in probabilistic near-linear time. This was used in turn to give the first capacity-achieving list decodable codes with (1) local list decoding algorithms, and with (2) probabilistic near-linear time global list decoding algorithms. This also yielded constant-rate codes approaching the Gilbert-Varshamov bound with probabilistic near-linear time global unique decoding algorithms.
In the current work we obtain the following results:
1) The tensor product of an efficient (poly-time) high-rate globally list recoverable code is globally list recoverable in deterministic near-linear time. This yields in turn the first capacity-achieving list decodable codes with deterministic near-linear time global list decoding algorithms. It also gives constant-rate codes approaching the Gilbert-Varshamov bound with deterministic near-linear time global unique decoding algorithms.
2) If the base code is additionally locally correctable, then the tensor product is (genuinely) locally list recoverable. This yields in turn (non-explicit) constant-rate codes approaching the Gilbert-Varshamov bound that are locally correctable with query complexity and running time N^{o(1)}. This improves over prior work by Gopi et. al. (SODA'17; IEEE Transactions on Information Theory'18) that only gave query complexity N^{epsilon} with rate that is exponentially small in 1/epsilon.
3) A nearly-tight combinatorial lower bound on output list size for list recovering high-rate tensor codes. This bound implies in turn a nearly-tight lower bound of N^{Omega(1/log log N)} on the product of query complexity and output list size for locally list recovering high-rate tensor codes.

Swastik Kopparty, Nicolas Resch, Noga Ron-Zewi, Shubhangi Saraf, and Shashwat Silas. On List Recovery of High-Rate Tensor Codes. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 68:1-68:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{kopparty_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.68, author = {Kopparty, Swastik and Resch, Nicolas and Ron-Zewi, Noga and Saraf, Shubhangi and Silas, Shashwat}, title = {{On List Recovery of High-Rate Tensor Codes}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {68:1--68:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.68}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112832}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.68}, annote = {Keywords: Coding theory, Tensor codes, List-decoding and recovery, Local codes} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)

A local tester for an error-correcting code is a probabilistic procedure that queries a small subset of coordinates, accepts codewords with probability one, and rejects non-codewords with probability proportional to their distance from the code. The local tester is robust if for non-codewords it satisfies the stronger property that the average distance of local views from accepting views is proportional to the distance from the code. Robust testing is an important component in constructions of locally testable codes and probabilistically checkable proofs as it allows for composition of local tests.
In this work we show that for certain codes, any (natural) local tester can be converted to a roubst tester with roughly the same number of queries. Our result holds for the class of affine-invariant lifted codes which is a broad class of codes that includes Reed-Muller codes, as well as recent constructions of high-rate locally testable codes (Guo, Kopparty, and Sudan, ITCS 2013). Instantiating this with known local testing results for lifted codes gives a more direct proof that improves some of the parameters of the main result of Guo, Haramaty, and Sudan (FOCS 2015), showing robustness of lifted codes.
To obtain the above transformation we relate the notions of local testing and robust testing to the notion of agreement testing that attempts to find out whether valid partial assignments can be stitched together to a global codeword. We first show that agreement testing implies robust testing, and then show that local testing implies agreement testing. Our proof is combinatorial, and is based on expansion / sampling properties of the collection of local views of local testers. Thus, it immediately applies to local testers of lifted codes that query random affine subspaces in F_q^m, and moreover seems amenable to extension to other families of locally testable codes with expanding families of local views.

Irit Dinur, Prahladh Harsha, Tali Kaufman, and Noga Ron-Zewi. From Local to Robust Testing via Agreement Testing. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 29:1-29:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dinur_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.29, author = {Dinur, Irit and Harsha, Prahladh and Kaufman, Tali and Ron-Zewi, Noga}, title = {{From Local to Robust Testing via Agreement Testing}}, booktitle = {10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)}, pages = {29:1--29:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-095-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {124}, editor = {Blum, Avrim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101221}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.29}, annote = {Keywords: Local testing, Robust testing, Agreement testing, Affine-invariant codes, Lifted codes} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)

We initiate the study of the role of erasures in local decoding and use our understanding to prove a separation between erasure-resilient and tolerant property testing. Local decoding in the presence of errors has been extensively studied, but has not been considered explicitly in the presence of erasures.
Motivated by applications in property testing, we begin our investigation with local list decoding in the presence of erasures. We prove an analog of a famous result of Goldreich and Levin on local list decodability of the Hadamard code. Specifically, we show that the Hadamard code is locally list decodable in the presence of a constant fraction of erasures, arbitrary close to 1, with list sizes and query complexity better than in the Goldreich-Levin theorem. We use this result to exhibit a property which is testable with a number of queries independent of the length of the input in the presence of erasures, but requires a number of queries that depends on the input length, n, for tolerant testing. We further study approximate locally list decodable codes that work against erasures and use them to strengthen our separation by constructing a property which is testable with a constant number of queries in the presence of erasures, but requires n^{Omega(1)} queries for tolerant testing.
Next, we study the general relationship between local decoding in the presence of errors and in the presence of erasures. We observe that every locally (uniquely or list) decodable code that works in the presence of errors also works in the presence of twice as many erasures (with the same parameters up to constant factors). We show that there is also an implication in the other direction for locally decodable codes (with unique decoding): specifically, that the existence of a locally decodable code that works in the presence of erasures implies the existence of a locally decodable code that works in the presence of errors and has related parameters. However, it remains open whether there is an implication in the other direction for locally list decodable codes. We relate this question to other open questions in local decoding.

Sofya Raskhodnikova, Noga Ron-Zewi, and Nithin Varma. Erasures vs. Errors in Local Decoding and Property Testing. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 63:1-63:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{raskhodnikova_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.63, author = {Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Ron-Zewi, Noga and Varma, Nithin}, title = {{Erasures vs. Errors in Local Decoding and Property Testing}}, booktitle = {10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)}, pages = {63:1--63:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-095-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {124}, editor = {Blum, Avrim}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.63}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101568}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.63}, annote = {Keywords: Error-correcting codes, probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs) of proximity, Hadamard code, local list decoding, tolerant testing} }

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