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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 294, 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)

It is known that the weighted version of Edge Multiway Cut (also known as Multiterminal Cut) is NP-complete on planar graphs of maximum degree 3. In contrast, for the unweighted version, NP-completeness is only known for planar graphs of maximum degree 11. In fact, the complexity of unweighted Edge Multiway Cut was open for graphs of maximum degree 3 for over twenty years. We prove that the unweighted version is NP-complete even for planar graphs of maximum degree 3. As weighted Edge Multiway Cut is polynomial-time solvable for graphs of maximum degree at most 2, we have now closed the complexity gap. We also prove that (unweighted) Node Multiway Cut (both with and without deletable terminals) is NP-complete for planar graphs of maximum degree 3. By combining our results with known results, we can apply two meta-classifications on graph containment from the literature. This yields full dichotomies for all three problems on H-topological-minor-free graphs and, should H be finite, on H-subgraph-free graphs as well. Previously, such dichotomies were only implied for H-minor-free graphs.

Matthew Johnson, Barnaby Martin, Sukanya Pandey, Daniël Paulusma, Siani Smith, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen. Edge Multiway Cut and Node Multiway Cut Are Hard for Planar Subcubic Graphs. In 19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 294, pp. 29:1-29:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{johnson_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.29, author = {Johnson, Matthew and Martin, Barnaby and Pandey, Sukanya and Paulusma, Dani\"{e}l and Smith, Siani and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan}, title = {{Edge Multiway Cut and Node Multiway Cut Are Hard for Planar Subcubic Graphs}}, booktitle = {19th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2024)}, pages = {29:1--29:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-318-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {294}, editor = {Bodlaender, Hans L.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.29}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-200699}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2024.29}, annote = {Keywords: multiway cut, planar subcubic graph, complexity dichotomy, graph containment} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

For any finite set ℋ = {H_1,…,H_p} of graphs, a graph is ℋ-subgraph-free if it does not contain any of H_1,…,H_p as a subgraph. In recent work, meta-classifications have been studied: these show that if graph problems satisfy certain prescribed conditions, their complexity can be classified on classes of ℋ-subgraph-free graphs. We continue this work and focus on problems that have polynomial-time solutions on classes that have bounded treewidth or maximum degree at most 3 and examine their complexity on H-subgraph-free graph classes where H is a connected graph. With this approach, we obtain comprehensive classifications for (Independent) Feedback Vertex Set, Connected Vertex Cover, Colouring and Matching Cut. This resolves a number of open problems.
We highlight that, to establish that Independent Feedback Vertex Set belongs to this collection of problems, we first show that it can be solved in polynomial time on graphs of maximum degree 3. We demonstrate that, with the exception of the complete graph on four vertices, each graph in this class has a minimum size feedback vertex set that is also an independent set.

Matthew Johnson, Barnaby Martin, Sukanya Pandey, Daniël Paulusma, Siani Smith, and Erik Jan van Leeuwen. Complexity Framework for Forbidden Subgraphs III: When Problems Are Tractable on Subcubic Graphs. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 57:1-57:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{johnson_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.57, author = {Johnson, Matthew and Martin, Barnaby and Pandey, Sukanya and Paulusma, Dani\"{e}l and Smith, Siani and van Leeuwen, Erik Jan}, title = {{Complexity Framework for Forbidden Subgraphs III: When Problems Are Tractable on Subcubic Graphs}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {57:1--57:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.57}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185914}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.57}, annote = {Keywords: forbidden subgraphs, independent feedback vertex set, treewidth} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

A natural way of increasing our understanding of NP-complete graph problems is to restrict the input to a special graph class. Classes of H-free graphs, that is, graphs that do not contain some graph H as an induced subgraph, have proven to be an ideal testbed for such a complexity study. However, if the forbidden graph H contains a cycle or claw, then these problems often stay NP-complete. A recent complexity study (MFCS 2019) on the k-Colouring problem shows that we may still obtain tractable results if we also bound the diameter of the H-free input graph. We continue this line of research by initiating a complexity study on the impact of bounding the diameter for a variety of classical vertex partitioning problems restricted to H-free graphs. We prove that bounding the diameter does not help for Independent Set, but leads to new tractable cases for problems closely related to 3-Colouring. That is, we show that Near-Bipartiteness, Independent Feedback Vertex Set, Independent Odd Cycle Transversal, Acyclic 3-Colouring and Star 3-Colouring are all polynomial-time solvable for chair-free graphs of bounded diameter. To obtain these results we exploit a new structural property of 3-colourable chair-free graphs.

Christoph Brause, Petr Golovach, Barnaby Martin, Daniël Paulusma, and Siani Smith. Partitioning H-Free Graphs of Bounded Diameter. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 21:1-21:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{brause_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.21, author = {Brause, Christoph and Golovach, Petr and Martin, Barnaby and Paulusma, Dani\"{e}l and Smith, Siani}, title = {{Partitioning H-Free Graphs of Bounded Diameter}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {21:1--21:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154543}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.21}, annote = {Keywords: vertex partitioning problem, H-free, diameter, complexity dichotomy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 204, 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)

We give a complexity dichotomy for the Quantified Constraint Satisfaction Problem QCSP(H) when H is a reflexive tournament. It is well-known that reflexive tournaments can be split into a sequence of strongly connected components H₁,…,H_n so that there exists an edge from every vertex of H_i to every vertex of H_j if and only if i < j. We prove that if H has both its initial and final strongly connected component (possibly equal) of size 1, then QCSP(H) is in NL and otherwise QCSP(H) is NP-hard.

Benoît Larose, Petar Marković, Barnaby Martin, Daniël Paulusma, Siani Smith, and Stanislav Živný. QCSP on Reflexive Tournaments. In 29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 204, pp. 58:1-58:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{larose_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2021.58, author = {Larose, Beno\^{i}t and Markovi\'{c}, Petar and Martin, Barnaby and Paulusma, Dani\"{e}l and Smith, Siani and \v{Z}ivn\'{y}, Stanislav}, title = {{QCSP on Reflexive Tournaments}}, booktitle = {29th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2021)}, pages = {58:1--58:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-204-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {204}, editor = {Mutzel, Petra and Pagh, Rasmus and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.58}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-146392}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2021.58}, annote = {Keywords: computational complexity, algorithmic graph theory, quantified constraints, universal algebra, constraint satisfaction} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

A k-colouring c of a graph G is a mapping V(G) → {1,2,… k} such that c(u) ≠ c(v) whenever u and v are adjacent. The corresponding decision problem is Colouring. A colouring is acyclic, star, or injective if any two colour classes induce a forest, star forest or disjoint union of vertices and edges, respectively. Hence, every injective colouring is a star colouring and every star colouring is an acyclic colouring. The corresponding decision problems are Acyclic Colouring, Star Colouring and Injective Colouring (the last problem is also known as L(1,1)-Labelling).
A classical complexity result on Colouring is a well-known dichotomy for H-free graphs, which was established twenty years ago (in this context, a graph is H-free if and only if it does not contain H as an induced subgraph). Moreover, this result has led to a large collection of results, which helped us to better understand the complexity of Colouring. In contrast, there is no systematic study into the computational complexity of Acyclic Colouring, Star Colouring and Injective Colouring despite numerous algorithmic and structural results that have appeared over the years.
We initiate such a systematic complexity study, and similar to the study of Colouring we use the class of H-free graphs as a testbed. We prove the following results:
1) We give almost complete classifications for the computational complexity of Acyclic Colouring, Star Colouring and Injective Colouring for H-free graphs.
2) If the number of colours k is fixed, that is, not part of the input, we give full complexity classifications for each of the three problems for H-free graphs. From our study we conclude that for fixed k the three problems behave in the same way, but this is no longer true if k is part of the input. To obtain several of our results we prove stronger complexity results that in particular involve the girth of a graph and the class of line graphs.

Jan Bok, Nikola Jedlic̆ková, Barnaby Martin, Daniël Paulusma, and Siani Smith. Acyclic, Star and Injective Colouring: A Complexity Picture for H-Free Graphs. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 22:1-22:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bok_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.22, author = {Bok, Jan and Jedlic̆kov\'{a}, Nikola and Martin, Barnaby and Paulusma, Dani\"{e}l and Smith, Siani}, title = {{Acyclic, Star and Injective Colouring: A Complexity Picture for H-Free Graphs}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {22:1--22:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.22}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-128885}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.22}, annote = {Keywords: acyclic colouring, star colouring, injective colouring, H-free, dichotomy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

The Colouring problem is to decide if the vertices of a graph can be coloured with at most k colours for an integer k, such that no two adjacent vertices are coloured alike. A graph G is H-free if G does not contain H as an induced subgraph. It is known that Colouring is NP-complete for H-free graphs if H contains a cycle or claw, even for fixed k >= 3. We examine to what extent the situation may change if in addition the input graph has bounded diameter.

Barnaby Martin, Daniël Paulusma, and Siani Smith. Colouring H-Free Graphs of Bounded Diameter. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 14:1-14:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{martin_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.14, author = {Martin, Barnaby and Paulusma, Dani\"{e}l and Smith, Siani}, title = {{Colouring H-Free Graphs of Bounded Diameter}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {14:1--14:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-109584}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.14}, annote = {Keywords: vertex colouring, H-free graph, diameter} }

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