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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 296, 35th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2024)

In this paper, we study for the first time the Diverse Longest Common Subsequences (LCSs) problem under Hamming distance. Given a set of a constant number of input strings, the problem asks to decide if there exists some subset X of K longest common subsequences whose diversity is no less than a specified threshold Δ, where we consider two types of diversities of a set X of strings of equal length: the Sum diversity and the Min diversity defined as the sum and the minimum of the pairwise Hamming distance between any two strings in X, respectively. We analyze the computational complexity of the respective problems with Sum- and Min-diversity measures, called the Max-Sum and Max-Min Diverse LCSs, respectively, considering both approximation algorithms and parameterized complexity. Our results are summarized as follows. When K is bounded, both problems are polynomial time solvable. In contrast, when K is unbounded, both problems become NP-hard, while Max-Sum Diverse LCSs problem admits a PTAS. Furthermore, we analyze the parameterized complexity of both problems with combinations of parameters K and r, where r is the length of the candidate strings to be selected. Importantly, all positive results above are proven in a more general setting, where an input is an edge-labeled directed acyclic graph (DAG) that succinctly represents a set of strings of the same length. Negative results are proven in the setting where an input is explicitly given as a set of strings. The latter results are equipped with an encoding such a set as the longest common subsequences of a specific input string set.

Yuto Shida, Giulia Punzi, Yasuaki Kobayashi, Takeaki Uno, and Hiroki Arimura. Finding Diverse Strings and Longest Common Subsequences in a Graph. In 35th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 296, pp. 27:1-27:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{shida_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2024.27, author = {Shida, Yuto and Punzi, Giulia and Kobayashi, Yasuaki and Uno, Takeaki and Arimura, Hiroki}, title = {{Finding Diverse Strings and Longest Common Subsequences in a Graph}}, booktitle = {35th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2024)}, pages = {27:1--27:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-326-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {296}, editor = {Inenaga, Shunsuke and Puglisi, Simon J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2024.27}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201370}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2024.27}, annote = {Keywords: Sequence analysis, longest common subsequence, Hamming distance, dispersion, approximation algorithms, parameterized complexity} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)

Maximal Common Subsequences (MCSs) between two strings X and Y are subsequences of both X and Y that are maximal under inclusion. MCSs relax and generalize the well known and widely used concept of Longest Common Subsequences (LCSs), which can be seen as MCSs of maximum length. While the number both LCSs and MCSs can be exponential in the length of the strings, LCSs have been long exploited for string and text analysis, as simple compact representations of all LCSs between two strings, built via dynamic programming or automata, have been known since the '70s. MCSs appear to have a more challenging structure: even listing them efficiently was an open problem open until recently, thus narrowing the complexity difference between the two problems, but the gap remained significant. In this paper we close the complexity gap: we show how to build DAG of polynomial size - in polynomial time - which allows for efficient operations on the set of all MCSs such as enumeration in Constant Amortized Time per solution (CAT), counting, and random access to the i-th element (i.e., rank and select operations). Other than improving known algorithmic results, this work paves the way for new sequence analysis methods based on MCSs.

Alessio Conte, Roberto Grossi, Giulia Punzi, and Takeaki Uno. A Compact DAG for Storing and Searching Maximal Common Subsequences. In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, pp. 21:1-21:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{conte_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.21, author = {Conte, Alessio and Grossi, Roberto and Punzi, Giulia and Uno, Takeaki}, title = {{A Compact DAG for Storing and Searching Maximal Common Subsequences}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)}, pages = {21:1--21:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-289-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {283}, editor = {Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193231}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.21}, annote = {Keywords: Maximal common subsequence, DAG, Compact data structures, Enumeration, Constant amortized time, Random access} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 259, 34th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2023)

LZ-End is a variant of the well-known Lempel-Ziv parsing family such that each phrase of the parsing has a previous occurrence, with the additional constraint that the previous occurrence must end at the end of a previous phrase. LZ-End was initially proposed as a greedy parsing, where each phrase is determined greedily from left to right, as the longest factor that satisfies the above constraint [Kreft & Navarro, 2010]. In this work, we consider an optimal LZ-End parsing that has the minimum number of phrases in such parsings. We show that a decision version of computing the optimal LZ-End parsing is NP-complete by showing a reduction from the vertex cover problem. Moreover, we give a MAX-SAT formulation for the optimal LZ-End parsing adapting an approach for computing various NP-hard repetitiveness measures recently presented by [Bannai et al., 2022]. We also consider the approximation ratio of the size of greedy LZ-End parsing to the size of the optimal LZ-End parsing, and give a lower bound of the ratio which asymptotically approaches 2.

Hideo Bannai, Mitsuru Funakoshi, Kazuhiro Kurita, Yuto Nakashima, Kazuhisa Seto, and Takeaki Uno. Optimal LZ-End Parsing Is Hard. In 34th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 259, pp. 3:1-3:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bannai_et_al:LIPIcs.CPM.2023.3, author = {Bannai, Hideo and Funakoshi, Mitsuru and Kurita, Kazuhiro and Nakashima, Yuto and Seto, Kazuhisa and Uno, Takeaki}, title = {{Optimal LZ-End Parsing Is Hard}}, booktitle = {34th Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching (CPM 2023)}, pages = {3:1--3:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-276-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {259}, editor = {Bulteau, Laurent and Lipt\'{a}k, Zsuzsanna}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2023.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-179571}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CPM.2023.3}, annote = {Keywords: Data Compression, LZ-End, Repetitiveness measures} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 226, 11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022)

Various forms of sorting problems have been studied over the years. Recently, two kinds of sorting puzzle apps are popularized. In these puzzles, we are given a set of bins filled with colored units, balls or water, and some empty bins. These puzzles allow us to move colored units from a bin to another when the colors involved match in some way or the target bin is empty. The goal of these puzzles is to sort all the color units in order. We investigate computational complexities of these puzzles. We first show that these two puzzles are essentially the same from the viewpoint of solvability. That is, an instance is sortable by ball-moves if and only if it is sortable by water-moves. We also show that every yes-instance has a solution of polynomial length, which implies that these puzzles belong to NP . We then show that these puzzles are NP-complete. For some special cases, we give polynomial-time algorithms. We finally consider the number of empty bins sufficient for making all instances solvable and give non-trivial upper and lower bounds in terms of the number of filled bins and the capacity of bins.

Takehiro Ito, Jun Kawahara, Shin-ichi Minato, Yota Otachi, Toshiki Saitoh, Akira Suzuki, Ryuhei Uehara, Takeaki Uno, Katsuhisa Yamanaka, and Ryo Yoshinaka. Sorting Balls and Water: Equivalence and Computational Complexity. In 11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 226, pp. 16:1-16:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ito_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2022.16, author = {Ito, Takehiro and Kawahara, Jun and Minato, Shin-ichi and Otachi, Yota and Saitoh, Toshiki and Suzuki, Akira and Uehara, Ryuhei and Uno, Takeaki and Yamanaka, Katsuhisa and Yoshinaka, Ryo}, title = {{Sorting Balls and Water: Equivalence and Computational Complexity}}, booktitle = {11th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2022)}, pages = {16:1--16:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-232-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {226}, editor = {Fraigniaud, Pierre and Uno, Yushi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2022.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-159867}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2022.16}, annote = {Keywords: Ball sort puzzle, recreational mathematics, sorting pairs in bins, water sort puzzle} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 138, 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)

This paper investigates induced Steiner subgraphs as a variant of the classical Steiner trees, so as to compactly represent the (exponentially many) Steiner trees sharing the same underlying induced subgraph. We prove that the enumeration of all (inclusion-minimal) induced Steiner subgraphs is harder than the well-known Hypergraph Transversal enumeration problem if the number of terminals is not fixed. When the number of terminals is fixed, we propose a polynomial delay algorithm for listing all induced Steiner subgraphs of minimum size. We also propose a polynomial delay algorithm for listing the set of minimal induced Steiner subgraphs when the number of terminals is 3.

Alessio Conte, Roberto Grossi, Mamadou Moustapha Kanté, Andrea Marino, Takeaki Uno, and Kunihiro Wasa. Listing Induced Steiner Subgraphs as a Compact Way to Discover Steiner Trees in Graphs. In 44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 138, pp. 73:1-73:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{conte_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.73, author = {Conte, Alessio and Grossi, Roberto and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Marino, Andrea and Uno, Takeaki and Wasa, Kunihiro}, title = {{Listing Induced Steiner Subgraphs as a Compact Way to Discover Steiner Trees in Graphs}}, booktitle = {44th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2019)}, pages = {73:1--73:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-117-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {138}, editor = {Rossmanith, Peter and Heggernes, Pinar and Katoen, Joost-Pieter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.73}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-110174}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2019.73}, annote = {Keywords: Graph algorithms, enumeration, listing and counting, Steiner trees, induced subgraphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 123, 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)

A dominating set D of a graph G is a set of vertices such that any vertex in G is in D or its neighbor is in D. Enumeration of minimal dominating sets in a graph is one of central problems in enumeration study since enumeration of minimal dominating sets corresponds to enumeration of minimal hypergraph transversal. However, enumeration of dominating sets including non-minimal ones has not been received much attention. In this paper, we address enumeration problems for dominating sets from sparse graphs which are degenerate graphs and graphs with large girth, and we propose two algorithms for solving the problems. The first algorithm enumerates all the dominating sets for a k-degenerate graph in O(k) time per solution using O(n + m) space, where n and m are respectively the number of vertices and edges in an input graph. That is, the algorithm is optimal for graphs with constant degeneracy such as trees, planar graphs, H-minor free graphs with some fixed H. The second algorithm enumerates all the dominating sets in constant time per solution for input graphs with girth at least nine.

Kazuhiro Kurita, Kunihiro Wasa, Hiroki Arimura, and Takeaki Uno. Efficient Enumeration of Dominating Sets for Sparse Graphs. In 29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 123, pp. 8:1-8:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{kurita_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.8, author = {Kurita, Kazuhiro and Wasa, Kunihiro and Arimura, Hiroki and Uno, Takeaki}, title = {{Efficient Enumeration of Dominating Sets for Sparse Graphs}}, booktitle = {29th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2018)}, pages = {8:1--8:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-094-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {123}, editor = {Hsu, Wen-Lian and Lee, Der-Tsai and Liao, Chung-Shou}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-99560}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2018.8}, annote = {Keywords: Enumeration algorithm, polynomial amortized time, dominating set, girth, degeneracy} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 92, 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)

Finding communities in the form of cohesive subgraphs is a fundamental problem in network analysis. In domains that model networks as undirected graphs, communities are generally associated with dense subgraphs, and many community models have been proposed.
Maximal cliques are arguably the most widely studied among such models, with early works dating back to the '60s, and a continuous stream of research up to the present. In domains that model networks as directed graphs, several approaches for community detection have been proposed, but there seems to be no clear model of cohesive subgraph, i.e., of what a community should look like. We extend the fundamental model of clique to directed graphs, adding the natural constraint of strong connectivity within the clique. We characterize the problem by giving a tight bound for the number of such cliques in a graph, and highlighting useful structural properties. We then exploit these properties to produce the first algorithm with polynomial delay for enumerating maximal strongly connected cliques.

Alessio Conte, Mamadou Moustapha Kanté, Takeaki Uno, and Kunihiro Wasa. On Maximal Cliques with Connectivity Constraints in Directed Graphs. In 28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 92, pp. 23:1-23:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{conte_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.23, author = {Conte, Alessio and Kant\'{e}, Mamadou Moustapha and Uno, Takeaki and Wasa, Kunihiro}, title = {{On Maximal Cliques with Connectivity Constraints in Directed Graphs}}, booktitle = {28th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2017)}, pages = {23:1--23:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-054-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {92}, editor = {Okamoto, Yoshio and Tokuyama, Takeshi}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-82284}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2017.23}, annote = {Keywords: Enumeration algorithms, Bounded delay, Directed graphs, Community structure, Network analytics} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

Given a graph G=(V,E) with V={1,...,n}, we place on every vertex a token T_1,...,T_n. A swap is an exchange of tokens on adjacent vertices. We consider the algorithmic question of finding a shortest sequence of swaps such that token T_i is on vertex i. We are able to achieve essentially matching upper and lower bounds, for exact algorithms and approximation algorithms. For exact algorithms, we rule out any 2^{o(n)} algorithm under the ETH. This is matched with a simple 2^{O(n*log(n))} algorithm based on a breadth-first search in an auxiliary graph. We show one general 4-approximation and show APX-hardness. Thus, there is a small constant delta > 1 such that every polynomial time approximation algorithm has approximation factor at least delta.
Our results also hold for a generalized version, where tokens and vertices are colored. In this generalized version each token must go to a vertex with the same color.

Tillmann Miltzow, Lothar Narins, Yoshio Okamoto, Günter Rote, Antonis Thomas, and Takeaki Uno. Approximation and Hardness of Token Swapping. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 66:1-66:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{miltzow_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.66, author = {Miltzow, Tillmann and Narins, Lothar and Okamoto, Yoshio and Rote, G\"{u}nter and Thomas, Antonis and Uno, Takeaki}, title = {{Approximation and Hardness of Token Swapping}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {66:1--66:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.66}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-64084}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.66}, annote = {Keywords: token swapping, minimum generator sequence, graph theory, NP-hardness, approximation algorithms} }