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Documents authored by Varma, Nithin


Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
Strongly Sublinear Algorithms for Testing Pattern Freeness

Authors: Ilan Newman and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)


Abstract
For a permutation π:[k] → [k], a function f:[n] → ℝ contains a π-appearance if there exists 1 ≤ i₁ < i₂ < … < i_k ≤ n such that for all s,t ∈ [k], f(i_s) < f(i_t) if and only if π(s) < π(t). The function is π-free if it has no π-appearances. In this paper, we investigate the problem of testing whether an input function f is π-free or whether f differs on at least ε n values from every π-free function. This is a generalization of the well-studied monotonicity testing and was first studied by Newman, Rabinovich, Rajendraprasad and Sohler [Ilan Newman et al., 2019]. We show that for all constants k ∈ ℕ, ε ∈ (0,1), and permutation π:[k] → [k], there is a one-sided error ε-testing algorithm for π-freeness of functions f:[n] → ℝ that makes Õ(n^o(1)) queries. We improve significantly upon the previous best upper bound O(n^{1 - 1/(k-1)}) by Ben-Eliezer and Canonne [Omri Ben-Eliezer and Clément L. Canonne, 2018]. Our algorithm is adaptive, while the earlier best upper bound is known to be tight for nonadaptive algorithms.

Cite as

Ilan Newman and Nithin Varma. Strongly Sublinear Algorithms for Testing Pattern Freeness. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 98:1-98:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{newman_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.98,
  author =	{Newman, Ilan and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{Strongly Sublinear Algorithms for Testing Pattern Freeness}},
  booktitle =	{49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)},
  pages =	{98:1--98:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-235-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{229},
  editor =	{Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.98},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164390},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.98},
  annote =	{Keywords: Property testing, Pattern freeness, Sublinear algorithms}
}
Document
Sublinear-Time Computation in the Presence of Online Erasures

Authors: Iden Kalemaj, Sofya Raskhodnikova, and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
We initiate the study of sublinear-time algorithms that access their input via an online adversarial erasure oracle. After answering each query to the input object, such an oracle can erase t input values. Our goal is to understand the complexity of basic computational tasks in extremely adversarial situations, where the algorithm’s access to data is blocked during the execution of the algorithm in response to its actions. Specifically, we focus on property testing in the model with online erasures. We show that two fundamental properties of functions, linearity and quadraticity, can be tested for constant t with asymptotically the same complexity as in the standard property testing model. For linearity testing, we prove tight bounds in terms of t, showing that the query complexity is Θ(log t). In contrast to linearity and quadraticity, some other properties, including sortedness and the Lipschitz property of sequences, cannot be tested at all, even for t = 1. Our investigation leads to a deeper understanding of the structure of violations of linearity and other widely studied properties.

Cite as

Iden Kalemaj, Sofya Raskhodnikova, and Nithin Varma. Sublinear-Time Computation in the Presence of Online Erasures. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 90:1-90:25, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{kalemaj_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.90,
  author =	{Kalemaj, Iden and Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{Sublinear-Time Computation in the Presence of Online Erasures}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{90:1--90:25},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.90},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156867},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.90},
  annote =	{Keywords: Randomized algorithms, property testing, Fourier analysis, linear functions, quadratic functions, Lipschitz and monotone functions, sorted sequences}
}
Document
Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games
New Sublinear Algorithms and Lower Bounds for LIS Estimation

Authors: Ilan Newman and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)


Abstract
Estimating the length of the longest increasing subsequence (LIS) in an array is a problem of fundamental importance. Despite the significance of the LIS estimation problem and the amount of attention it has received, there are important aspects of the problem that are not yet fully understood. There are no better lower bounds for LIS estimation than the obvious bounds implied by testing monotonicity (for adaptive or nonadaptive algorithms). In this paper, we give the first nontrivial lower bound on the complexity of LIS estimation, and also provide novel algorithms that complement our lower bound. Specifically, we show that for every ε ∈ (0,1), every nonadaptive algorithm that outputs an estimate of the LIS length in an array of length n to within an additive error of ε n has to make log^{Ω(log (1/ε))} n queries. Next, we design nonadaptive LIS estimation algorithms whose complexity decreases as the number of distinct values, r, in the array decreases. We first present a simple algorithm that makes Õ(r/ε³) queries and approximates the LIS length with an additive error bounded by ε n. This algorithm has better complexity than the best previously known adaptive algorithm (Saks and Seshadhri; 2017) for the same problem when r ≪ polylog (n). We use our algorithm to construct a nonadaptive algorithm with query complexity Õ(√r⋅ poly(1/λ)) that, when the LIS is of length at least λ n, outputs a multiplicative Ω(λ)-approximation to the LIS length. Our algorithm improves upon the state of the art nonadaptive LIS estimation algorithm (Rubinstein, Seddighin, Song, and Sun; 2019) in terms of the approximation guarantee. Finally, we present a O(log n)-query nonadaptive erasure-resilient tester for monotonicity. Our result implies that lower bounds on erasure-resilient testing of monotonicity does not give good lower bounds for LIS estimation. It also implies that nonadaptive tolerant testing is strictly harder than nonadaptive erasure-resilient testing for the natural property of monotonicity.

Cite as

Ilan Newman and Nithin Varma. New Sublinear Algorithms and Lower Bounds for LIS Estimation. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 100:1-100:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{newman_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.100,
  author =	{Newman, Ilan and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{New Sublinear Algorithms and Lower Bounds for LIS Estimation}},
  booktitle =	{48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)},
  pages =	{100:1--100:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-195-5},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{198},
  editor =	{Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.100},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141699},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.100},
  annote =	{Keywords: longest increasing subsequence, monotonicity, distance estimation, sublinear algorithms}
}
Document
Query Complexity Lower Bounds for Local List-Decoding and Hard-Core Predicates (Even for Small Rate and Huge Lists)

Authors: Noga Ron-Zewi, Ronen Shaltiel, and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
A binary code Enc:{0,1}^k → {0,1}ⁿ is (1/2-ε,L)-list decodable if for every w ∈ {0,1}ⁿ, there exists a set List(w) of size at most L, containing all messages m ∈ {0,1}^k such that the relative Hamming distance between Enc(m) and w is at most 1/2-ε. A q-query local list-decoder for Enc is a randomized procedure Dec that when given oracle access to a string w, makes at most q oracle calls, and for every message m ∈ List(w), with high probability, there exists j ∈ [L] such that for every i ∈ [k], with high probability, Dec^w(i,j) = m_i. We prove lower bounds on q, that apply even if L is huge (say L = 2^{k^{0.9}}) and the rate of Enc is small (meaning that n ≥ 2^{k}): - For ε = 1/k^{ν} for some constant 0 < ν < 1, we prove a lower bound of q = Ω(log(1/δ)/ε²), where δ is the error probability of the local list-decoder. This bound is tight as there is a matching upper bound by Goldreich and Levin (STOC 1989) of q = O(log(1/δ)/ε²) for the Hadamard code (which has n = 2^k). This bound extends an earlier work of Grinberg, Shaltiel and Viola (FOCS 2018) which only works if n ≤ 2^{k^ν} and the number of coins tossed by Dec is small (and therefore does not apply to the Hadamard code, or other codes with low rate). - For smaller ε, we prove a lower bound of roughly q = Ω(1/(√ε)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first lower bound on the number of queries of local list-decoders that gives q ≥ k for small ε. Local list-decoders with small ε form the key component in the celebrated theorem of Goldreich and Levin that extracts a hard-core predicate from a one-way function. We show that black-box proofs cannot improve the Goldreich-Levin theorem and produce a hard-core predicate that is hard to predict with probability 1/2 + 1/𝓁^ω(1) when provided with a one-way function f:{0,1}^𝓁 → {0,1}^𝓁, where f is such that circuits of size poly(𝓁) cannot invert f with probability ρ = 1/2^√𝓁 (or even ρ = 1/2^Ω(𝓁)). This limitation applies to any proof by black-box reduction (even if the reduction is allowed to use nonuniformity and has oracle access to f).

Cite as

Noga Ron-Zewi, Ronen Shaltiel, and Nithin Varma. Query Complexity Lower Bounds for Local List-Decoding and Hard-Core Predicates (Even for Small Rate and Huge Lists). In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 33:1-33:18, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{ronzewi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.33,
  author =	{Ron-Zewi, Noga and Shaltiel, Ronen and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{Query Complexity Lower Bounds for Local List-Decoding and Hard-Core Predicates (Even for Small Rate and Huge Lists)}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{33:1--33:18},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.33},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135724},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.33},
  annote =	{Keywords: Local list-decoding, Hard-core predicates, Black-box reduction, Hadamard code}
}
Document
Erasure-Resilient Sublinear-Time Graph Algorithms

Authors: Amit Levi, Ramesh Krishnan S. Pallavoor, Sofya Raskhodnikova, and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)


Abstract
We investigate sublinear-time algorithms that take partially erased graphs represented by adjacency lists as input. Our algorithms make degree and neighbor queries to the input graph and work with a specified fraction of adversarial erasures in adjacency entries. We focus on two computational tasks: testing if a graph is connected or ε-far from connected and estimating the average degree. For testing connectedness, we discover a threshold phenomenon: when the fraction of erasures is less than ε, this property can be tested efficiently (in time independent of the size of the graph); when the fraction of erasures is at least ε, then a number of queries linear in the size of the graph representation is required. Our erasure-resilient algorithm (for the special case with no erasures) is an improvement over the previously known algorithm for connectedness in the standard property testing model and has optimal dependence on the proximity parameter ε. For estimating the average degree, our results provide an "interpolation" between the query complexity for this computational task in the model with no erasures in two different settings: with only degree queries, investigated by Feige (SIAM J. Comput. `06), and with degree queries and neighbor queries, investigated by Goldreich and Ron (Random Struct. Algorithms `08) and Eden et al. (ICALP `17). We conclude with a discussion of our model and open questions raised by our work.

Cite as

Amit Levi, Ramesh Krishnan S. Pallavoor, Sofya Raskhodnikova, and Nithin Varma. Erasure-Resilient Sublinear-Time Graph Algorithms. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 80:1-80:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


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@InProceedings{levi_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.80,
  author =	{Levi, Amit and Pallavoor, Ramesh Krishnan S. and Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{Erasure-Resilient Sublinear-Time Graph Algorithms}},
  booktitle =	{12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)},
  pages =	{80:1--80:20},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-177-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2021},
  volume =	{185},
  editor =	{Lee, James R.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.80},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-136192},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.80},
  annote =	{Keywords: Graph property testing, Computing with incomplete information, Approximating graph parameters}
}
Document
Erasures vs. Errors in Local Decoding and Property Testing

Authors: Sofya Raskhodnikova, Noga Ron-Zewi, and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 124, 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)


Abstract
We initiate the study of the role of erasures in local decoding and use our understanding to prove a separation between erasure-resilient and tolerant property testing. Local decoding in the presence of errors has been extensively studied, but has not been considered explicitly in the presence of erasures. Motivated by applications in property testing, we begin our investigation with local list decoding in the presence of erasures. We prove an analog of a famous result of Goldreich and Levin on local list decodability of the Hadamard code. Specifically, we show that the Hadamard code is locally list decodable in the presence of a constant fraction of erasures, arbitrary close to 1, with list sizes and query complexity better than in the Goldreich-Levin theorem. We use this result to exhibit a property which is testable with a number of queries independent of the length of the input in the presence of erasures, but requires a number of queries that depends on the input length, n, for tolerant testing. We further study approximate locally list decodable codes that work against erasures and use them to strengthen our separation by constructing a property which is testable with a constant number of queries in the presence of erasures, but requires n^{Omega(1)} queries for tolerant testing. Next, we study the general relationship between local decoding in the presence of errors and in the presence of erasures. We observe that every locally (uniquely or list) decodable code that works in the presence of errors also works in the presence of twice as many erasures (with the same parameters up to constant factors). We show that there is also an implication in the other direction for locally decodable codes (with unique decoding): specifically, that the existence of a locally decodable code that works in the presence of erasures implies the existence of a locally decodable code that works in the presence of errors and has related parameters. However, it remains open whether there is an implication in the other direction for locally list decodable codes. We relate this question to other open questions in local decoding.

Cite as

Sofya Raskhodnikova, Noga Ron-Zewi, and Nithin Varma. Erasures vs. Errors in Local Decoding and Property Testing. In 10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 124, pp. 63:1-63:21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{raskhodnikova_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.63,
  author =	{Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Ron-Zewi, Noga and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{Erasures vs. Errors in Local Decoding and Property Testing}},
  booktitle =	{10th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2019)},
  pages =	{63:1--63:21},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-095-8},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{124},
  editor =	{Blum, Avrim},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.63},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-101568},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2019.63},
  annote =	{Keywords: Error-correcting codes, probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs) of proximity, Hadamard code, local list decoding, tolerant testing}
}
Document
Brief Announcement
Brief Announcement: Erasure-Resilience Versus Tolerance to Errors

Authors: Sofya Raskhodnikova and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)


Abstract
We describe work in progress on providing a separation between erasure-resilient and tolerant property testing. Specifically, we are able to exhibit a property which is testable (with the number of queries independent of the length of the input) in the presence of erasures, but is not testable tolerantly.

Cite as

Sofya Raskhodnikova and Nithin Varma. Brief Announcement: Erasure-Resilience Versus Tolerance to Errors. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 111:1-111:3, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{raskhodnikova_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.111,
  author =	{Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{Brief Announcement: Erasure-Resilience Versus Tolerance to Errors}},
  booktitle =	{45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)},
  pages =	{111:1--111:3},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-076-7},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{107},
  editor =	{Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.111},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-91154},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.111},
  annote =	{Keywords: Property testing, erasures, tolerance to errors, model separation}
}
Document
Parameterized Property Testing of Functions

Authors: Ramesh Krishnan S. Pallavoor, Sofya Raskhodnikova, and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 67, 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)


Abstract
We investigate the parameters in terms of which the complexity of sublinear-time algorithms should be expressed. Our goal is to find input parameters that are tailored to the combinatorics of the specific problem being studied and design algorithms that run faster when these parameters are small. This direction enables us to surpass the (worst-case) lower bounds, expressed in terms of the input size, for several problems. Our aim is to develop a similar level of understanding of the complexity of sublinear-time algorithms to the one that was enabled by research in parameterized complexity for classical algorithms. Specifically, we focus on testing properties of functions. By parameterizing the query complexity in terms of the size r of the image of the input function, we obtain testers for monotonicity and convexity of functions of the form f:[n]\to \mathbb{R} with query complexity O(\log r), with no dependence on n. The result for monotonicity circumvents the \Omega(\log n) lower bound by Fischer (Inf. Comput., 2004) for this problem. We present several other parameterized testers, providing compelling evidence that expressing the query complexity of property testers in terms of the input size is not always the best choice.

Cite as

Ramesh Krishnan S. Pallavoor, Sofya Raskhodnikova, and Nithin Varma. Parameterized Property Testing of Functions. In 8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 67, pp. 12:1-12:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{pallavoor_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.12,
  author =	{Pallavoor, Ramesh Krishnan S. and Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{Parameterized Property Testing of Functions}},
  booktitle =	{8th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2017)},
  pages =	{12:1--12:17},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-029-3},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{67},
  editor =	{Papadimitriou, Christos H.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.12},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-81479},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2017.12},
  annote =	{Keywords: Sublinear algorithms, property testing, parameterization, monotonicity, convexity}
}
Document
Erasure-Resilient Property Testing

Authors: Kashyap Dixit, Sofya Raskhodnikova, Abhradeep Thakurta, and Nithin Varma

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)


Abstract
Property testers form an important class of sublinear algorithms. In the standard property testing model, an algorithm accesses the input function f:D -> R via an oracle. With very few exceptions, all property testers studied in this model rely on the oracle to provide function values at all queried domain points. However, in many realistic situations, the oracle may be unable to reveal the function values at some domain points due to privacy concerns, or when some of the values get erased by mistake or by an adversary. The testers do not learn anything useful about the property by querying those erased points. Moreover, the knowledge of a tester may enable an adversary to erase some of the values so as to increase the query complexity of the tester arbitrarily or, in some cases, make the tester entirely useless. In this work, we initiate a study of property testers that are resilient to the presence of adversarially erased function values. An alpha-erasure-resilient epsilon-tester is given parameters alpha, epsilon in (0,1), along with oracle access to a function f such that at most an alpha fraction of function values have been erased. The tester does not know whether a value is erased until it queries the corresponding domain point. The tester has to accept with high probability if there is a way to assign values to the erased points such that the resulting function satisfies the desired property P. It has to reject with high probability if, for every assignment of values to the erased points, the resulting function has to be changed in at least an epsilon-fraction of the non-erased domain points to satisfy P. We design erasure-resilient property testers for a large class of properties. For some properties, it is possible to obtain erasure-resilient testers by simply using standard testers as a black box. However, there are more challenging properties for which all known testers rely on querying a specific point. If this point is erased, all these testers break. We give efficient erasure-resilient testers for several important classes of such properties of functions including monotonicity, the Lipschitz property, and convexity. Finally, we show a separation between the standard testing and erasure-resilient testing. Specifically, we describe a property that can be epsilon-tested with O(1/epsilon) queries in the standard model, whereas testing it in the erasure-resilient model requires number of queries polynomial in the input size.

Cite as

Kashyap Dixit, Sofya Raskhodnikova, Abhradeep Thakurta, and Nithin Varma. Erasure-Resilient Property Testing. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 91:1-91:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)


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@InProceedings{dixit_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.91,
  author =	{Dixit, Kashyap and Raskhodnikova, Sofya and Thakurta, Abhradeep and Varma, Nithin},
  title =	{{Erasure-Resilient Property Testing}},
  booktitle =	{43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)},
  pages =	{91:1--91:15},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-013-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2016},
  volume =	{55},
  editor =	{Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.91},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-61947},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.91},
  annote =	{Keywords: Randomized algorithms, property testing, error correction, monotoneand Lipschitz functions}
}
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