Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

We study the fundamental challenge of exhibiting explicit functions that have small correlation with low-degree polynomials over 𝔽₂. Our main contributions include:
1) In STOC 2020, CHHLZ introduced a new technique to prove correlation bounds. Using their technique they established new correlation bounds for low-degree polynomials. They conjectured that their technique generalizes to higher degree polynomials as well. We give a counterexample to their conjecture, in fact ruling out weaker parameters and showing what they prove is essentially the best possible.
2) We propose a new approach for proving correlation bounds with the central "mod functions," consisting of two steps: (I) the polynomials that maximize correlation are symmetric and (II) symmetric polynomials have small correlation. Contrary to related results in the literature, we conjecture that (I) is true. We argue this approach is not affected by existing "barrier results."
3) We prove our conjecture for quadratic polynomials. Specifically, we determine the maximum possible correlation between quadratic polynomials modulo 2 and the functions (x_1,… ,x_n) → z^{∑ x_i} for any z on the complex unit circle, and show that it is achieved by symmetric polynomials. To obtain our results we develop a new proof technique: we express correlation in terms of directional derivatives and analyze it by slowly restricting the direction.
4) We make partial progress on the conjecture for cubic polynomials, in particular proving tight correlation bounds for cubic polynomials whose degree-3 part is symmetric.

Peter Ivanov, Liam Pavlovic, and Emanuele Viola. On Correlation Bounds Against Polynomials. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 3:1-3:35, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{ivanov_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.3, author = {Ivanov, Peter and Pavlovic, Liam and Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{On Correlation Bounds Against Polynomials}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {3:1--3:35}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182734}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.3}, annote = {Keywords: Correlation bounds, Polynomials} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 264, 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)

Suppose that a target distribution can be approximately sampled by a low-depth decision tree, or more generally by an efficient cell-probe algorithm. It is shown to be possible to restrict the input to the sampler so that its output distribution is still not too far from the target distribution, and at the same time many output coordinates are almost pairwise independent.
This new tool is then used to obtain several new sampling lower bounds and separations, including a separation between AC0 and low-depth decision trees, and a hierarchy theorem for sampling. It is also used to obtain a new proof of the Patrascu-Viola data-structure lower bound for Rank, thereby unifying sampling and data-structure lower bounds.

Emanuele Viola. New Sampling Lower Bounds via the Separator. In 38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 264, pp. 26:1-26:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{viola:LIPIcs.CCC.2023.26, author = {Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{New Sampling Lower Bounds via the Separator}}, booktitle = {38th Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2023)}, pages = {26:1--26:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-282-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {264}, editor = {Ta-Shma, Amnon}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-182967}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2023.26}, annote = {Keywords: Sampling, data structures, lower bounds, cell probe, decision forest, AC0, rank, predecessor} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

We study a simple and general template for constructing affine extractors by composing a linear transformation with resilient functions. Using this we show that good affine extractors can be computed by non-explicit circuits of various types, including AC0-Xor circuits: AC0 circuits with a layer of parity gates at the input. We also show that one-sided extractors can be computed by small DNF-Xor circuits, and separate these circuits from other well-studied classes. As a further motivation for studying DNF-Xor circuits we show that if they can approximate inner product then small AC0-Xor circuits can compute it exactly - a long-standing open problem.

Xuangui Huang, Peter Ivanov, and Emanuele Viola. Affine Extractors and AC0-Parity. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 9:1-9:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{huang_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.9, author = {Huang, Xuangui and Ivanov, Peter and Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{Affine Extractors and AC0-Parity}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {9:1--9:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.9}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171313}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.9}, annote = {Keywords: affine extractor, resilient function, constant-depth circuit, parity gate, inner product} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

We initiate a systematic study of mixing in non-quasirandom groups. Let A and B be two independent, high-entropy distributions over a group G. We show that the product distribution AB is statistically close to the distribution F(AB) for several choices of G and F, including:
1) G is the affine group of 2x2 matrices, and F sets the top-right matrix entry to a uniform value,
2) G is the lamplighter group, that is the wreath product of ℤ₂ and ℤ_{n}, and F is multiplication by a certain subgroup,
3) G is Hⁿ where H is non-abelian, and F selects a uniform coordinate and takes a uniform conjugate of it.
The obtained bounds for (1) and (2) are tight.
This work is motivated by and applied to problems in communication complexity. We consider the 3-party communication problem of deciding if the product of three group elements multiplies to the identity. We prove lower bounds for the groups above, which are tight for the affine and the lamplighter groups.

W. T. Gowers and Emanuele Viola. Mixing in Non-Quasirandom Groups. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 80:1-80:9, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{gowers_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.80, author = {Gowers, W. T. and Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{Mixing in Non-Quasirandom Groups}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {80:1--80:9}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.80}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156761}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.80}, annote = {Keywords: Groups, representation theory, mixing, communication complexity, quasi-random} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

The hardness vs. randomness paradigm aims to explicitly construct pseudorandom generators G:{0,1}^r → {0,1}^m that fool circuits of size m, assuming the existence of explicit hard functions. A "high-end PRG" with seed length r = O(log m) (implying BPP=P) was achieved in a seminal work of Impagliazzo and Wigderson (STOC 1997), assuming the high-end hardness assumption: there exist constants 0 < β < 1 < B, and functions computable in time 2^{B ⋅ n} that cannot be computed by circuits of size 2^{β ⋅ n}.
Recently, motivated by fast derandomization of randomized algorithms, Doron et al. (FOCS 2020) and Chen and Tell (STOC 2021), construct "extreme high-end PRGs" with seed length r = (1+o(1))⋅ log m, under qualitatively stronger assumptions.
We study whether extreme high-end PRGs can be constructed from the corresponding hardness assumption in which β = 1-o(1) and B = 1+o(1), which we call the extreme high-end hardness assumption. We give a partial negative answer:
- The construction of Doron et al. composes a PEG (pseudo-entropy generator) with an extractor. The PEG is constructed starting from a function that is hard for MA-type circuits. We show that black-box PEG constructions from the extreme high-end hardness assumption must have large seed length (and so cannot be used to obtain extreme high-end PRGs by applying an extractor).
To prove this, we establish a new property of (general) black-box PRG constructions from hard functions: it is possible to fix many output bits of the construction while fixing few bits of the hard function. This property distinguishes PRG constructions from typical extractor constructions, and this may explain why it is difficult to design PRG constructions.
- The construction of Chen and Tell composes two PRGs: G₁:{0,1}^{(1+o(1)) ⋅ log m} → {0,1}^{r₂ = m^{Ω(1)}} and G₂:{0,1}^{r₂} → {0,1}^m. The first PRG is constructed from the extreme high-end hardness assumption, and the second PRG needs to run in time m^{1+o(1)}, and is constructed assuming one way functions. We show that in black-box proofs of hardness amplification to 1/2+1/m, reductions must make Ω(m) queries, even in the extreme high-end. Known PRG constructions from hard functions are black-box and use (or imply) hardness amplification, and so cannot be used to construct a PRG G₂ from the extreme high-end hardness assumption.
The new feature of our hardness amplification result is that it applies even to the extreme high-end setting of parameters, whereas past work does not. Our techniques also improve recent lower bounds of Ron-Zewi, Shaltiel and Varma (ITCS 2021) on the number of queries of local list-decoding algorithms.

Ronen Shaltiel and Emanuele Viola. On Hardness Assumptions Needed for "Extreme High-End" PRGs and Fast Derandomization. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 116:1-116:17, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{shaltiel_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.116, author = {Shaltiel, Ronen and Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{On Hardness Assumptions Needed for "Extreme High-End" PRGs and Fast Derandomization}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {116:1--116:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.116}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-157122}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.116}, annote = {Keywords: Complexity Theory, Derandomization, Pseudorandom generators, Black-box proofs} }

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RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 207, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)

We analyze the Fourier growth, i.e. the L₁ Fourier weight at level k (denoted L_{1,k}), of various well-studied classes of "structured" m F₂-polynomials. This study is motivated by applications in pseudorandomness, in particular recent results and conjectures due to [Chattopadhyay et al., 2019; Chattopadhyay et al., 2019; Eshan Chattopadhyay et al., 2020] which show that upper bounds on Fourier growth (even at level k = 2) give unconditional pseudorandom generators.
Our main structural results on Fourier growth are as follows:
- We show that any symmetric degree-d m F₂-polynomial p has L_{1,k}(p) ≤ Pr [p = 1] ⋅ O(d)^k. This quadratically strengthens an earlier bound that was implicit in [Omer Reingold et al., 2013].
- We show that any read-Δ degree-d m F₂-polynomial p has L_{1,k}(p) ≤ Pr [p = 1] ⋅ (k Δ d)^{O(k)}.
- We establish a composition theorem which gives L_{1,k} bounds on disjoint compositions of functions that are closed under restrictions and admit L_{1,k} bounds.
Finally, we apply the above structural results to obtain new unconditional pseudorandom generators and new correlation bounds for various classes of m F₂-polynomials.

Jarosław Błasiok, Peter Ivanov, Yaonan Jin, Chin Ho Lee, Rocco A. Servedio, and Emanuele Viola. Fourier Growth of Structured 𝔽₂-Polynomials and Applications. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 53:1-53:20, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{blasiok_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.53, author = {B{\l}asiok, Jaros{\l}aw and Ivanov, Peter and Jin, Yaonan and Lee, Chin Ho and Servedio, Rocco A. and Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{Fourier Growth of Structured \mathbb{F}₂-Polynomials and Applications}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021)}, pages = {53:1--53:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-207-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {207}, editor = {Wootters, Mary and Sanit\`{a}, Laura}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.53}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-147462}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2021.53}, annote = {Keywords: Fourier analysis, Pseudorandomness, Fourier growth} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 198, 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)

Recently several conjectures were made regarding the Fourier spectrum of low-degree polynomials. We show that these conjectures imply new correlation bounds for functions related to Majority. Then we prove several new results on correlation bounds which aim to, but don't, resolve the conjectures. In particular, we prove several new results on Majority which are of independent interest and complement Smolensky’s classic result.

Emanuele Viola. Fourier Conjectures, Correlation Bounds, and Majority. In 48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 198, pp. 111:1-111:15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{viola:LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.111, author = {Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{Fourier Conjectures, Correlation Bounds, and Majority}}, booktitle = {48th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2021)}, pages = {111:1--111:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-195-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {198}, editor = {Bansal, Nikhil and Merelli, Emanuela and Worrell, James}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.111}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-141806}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2021.111}, annote = {Keywords: Fourier analysis, polynomials, Majority, correlation, lower bound, conjectures} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

We revisit one of the classic problems in the data stream literature, namely, that of estimating the frequency moments F_p for 0 < p < 2 of an underlying n-dimensional vector presented as a sequence of additive updates in a stream. It is well-known that using p-stable distributions one can approximate any of these moments up to a multiplicative (1+epsilon)-factor using O(epsilon^{-2} log n) bits of space, and this space bound is optimal up to a constant factor in the turnstile streaming model. We show that surprisingly, if one instead considers the popular random-order model of insertion-only streams, in which the updates to the underlying vector arrive in a random order, then one can beat this space bound and achieve O~(epsilon^{-2} + log n) bits of space, where the O~ hides poly(log(1/epsilon) + log log n) factors. If epsilon^{-2} ~~ log n, this represents a roughly quadratic improvement in the space achievable in turnstile streams. Our algorithm is in fact deterministic, and we show our space bound is optimal up to poly(log(1/epsilon) + log log n) factors for deterministic algorithms in the random order model. We also obtain a similar improvement in space for p = 2 whenever F_2 >~ log n * F_1.

Vladimir Braverman, Emanuele Viola, David P. Woodruff, and Lin F. Yang. Revisiting Frequency Moment Estimation in Random Order Streams. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 25:1-25:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{braverman_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25, author = {Braverman, Vladimir and Viola, Emanuele and Woodruff, David P. and Yang, Lin F.}, title = {{Revisiting Frequency Moment Estimation in Random Order Streams}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {25:1--25:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90294}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.25}, annote = {Keywords: Data Stream, Frequency Moments, Random Order, Space Complexity, Insertion Only Stream} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 79, 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)

Let D be a b-wise independent distribution over {0,1}^m. Let E be the "noise" distribution over {0,1}^m where the bits are independent and each bit is 1 with probability eta/2. We study which tests f: {0,1}^m -> [-1,1] are epsilon-fooled by D+E, i.e., |E[f(D+E)] - E[f(U)]| <= epsilon where U is the uniform distribution.
We show that D+E epsilon-fools product tests f: ({0,1}^n)^k -> [-1,1] given by the product of k bounded functions on disjoint n-bit inputs with error epsilon = k(1-eta)^{Omega(b^2/m)}, where m = nk and b >= n. This bound is tight when b = Omega(m) and eta >= (log k)/m. For b >= m^{2/3} log m and any constant eta the distribution D+E also 0.1-fools log-space algorithms.
We develop two applications of this type of results. First, we prove communication lower bounds for decoding noisy codewords of length m split among k parties. For Reed-Solomon codes of dimension m/k where k = O(1), communication Omega(eta m) - O(log m) is required to decode one message symbol from a codeword with eta m errors, and communication O(eta m log m) suffices. Second, we obtain pseudorandom generators. We can epsilon-fool product tests f: ({0,1}^n)^k -> [-1,1] under any permutation of the bits with seed lengths 2n + O~(k^2 log(1/epsilon)) and O(n) + O~(sqrt{nk log 1/epsilon}). Previous generators have seed lengths >= nk/2 or >= n sqrt{n k}. For the special case where the k bounded functions have range {0,1} the previous generators have seed length >= (n+log k)log(1/epsilon).

Elad Haramaty, Chin Ho Lee, and Emanuele Viola. Bounded Independence Plus Noise Fools Products. In 32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 79, pp. 14:1-14:30, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{haramaty_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2017.14, author = {Haramaty, Elad and Lee, Chin Ho and Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{Bounded Independence Plus Noise Fools Products}}, booktitle = {32nd Computational Complexity Conference (CCC 2017)}, pages = {14:1--14:30}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-040-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {79}, editor = {O'Donnell, Ryan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-75188}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2017.14}, annote = {Keywords: ounded independence, Noise, Product tests, Error-correcting codes, Pseudorandomness} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)

Let k = k(n) be the largest integer such that there exists a k-wise uniform distribution over {0,1}^n that is supported on the set S_m := {x in {0,1}^n: sum_i x_i equiv 0 mod m}, where m is any integer. We show that Omega(n/m^2 log m) <= k <= 2n/m + 2. For k = O(n/m) we also show that any k-wise uniform distribution puts probability mass at most 1/m + 1/100 over S_m. For any fixed odd m there is k \ge (1 - Omega(1))n such that any k-wise uniform distribution lands in S_m with probability exponentially close to |S_m|/2^n; and this result is false for any even m.

Ravi Boppana, Johan Håstad, Chin Ho Lee, and Emanuele Viola. Bounded Independence vs. Moduli. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 24:1-24:9, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{boppana_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.24, author = {Boppana, Ravi and H\r{a}stad, Johan and Lee, Chin Ho and Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{Bounded Independence vs. Moduli}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)}, pages = {24:1--24:9}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-018-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {60}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66475}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.24}, annote = {Keywords: Bounded independence, Modulus} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 33, 30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015)

We consider randomness extraction by AC0 circuits. The main parameter, n, is the length of the source, and all other parameters are functions of it. The additional extraction parameters are the min-entropy bound k=k(n), the seed length r=r(n), the output length m=m(n), and the (output) deviation bound epsilon=epsilon(n).
For k <=e n/\log^(omega(1))(n), we show that AC0-extraction is possible if and only if m/r <= 1+ poly(log(n)) * k/n; that is, the extraction rate m/r exceeds the trivial rate (of one) by an additive amount that is proportional to the min-entropy rate k/n. In particular, non-trivial AC0-extraction (i.e., m >= r+1) is possible if and only if k * r > n/poly(log(n)). For k >= n/log^(O(1))(n),
we show that AC0-extraction of r+Omega(r) bits is possible when r=O(log(n)), but leave open the question of whether more bits can be extracted in this case.
The impossibility result is for constant epsilon, and the possibility result supports epsilon=1/poly(n). The impossibility result is for (possibly) non-uniform AC0, whereas the possibility result hold for uniform AC0. All our impossibility results hold even for the model of bit-fixing sources, where k coincides with the number of non-fixed (i.e., random) bits.
We also consider deterministic AC0 extraction from various classes of restricted sources. In particular, for any constant $\delta>0$, we give explicit AC0 extractors for poly(1/delta) independent sources that are each of min-entropy rate delta; and four sources suffice for delta=0.99. Also, we give non-explicit AC0 extractors for bit-fixing sources of entropy rate 1/poly(log(n)) (i.e., having n/poly(log(n)) unfixed bits). This shows that the known analysis of the "restriction method" (for making a circuit constant by fixing as few variables as possible) is tight for AC0 even if the restriction is picked deterministically depending on the circuit.

Oded Goldreich, Emanuele Viola, and Avi Wigderson. On Randomness Extraction in AC0. In 30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 33, pp. 601-668, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{goldreich_et_al:LIPIcs.CCC.2015.601, author = {Goldreich, Oded and Viola, Emanuele and Wigderson, Avi}, title = {{On Randomness Extraction in AC0}}, booktitle = {30th Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC 2015)}, pages = {601--668}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-81-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {33}, editor = {Zuckerman, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2015.601}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-50515}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.CCC.2015.601}, annote = {Keywords: AC0, randomness extractors, general min-entropy sources, block sources, bit-fixing sources, multiple-source extraction} }

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**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6111, Complexity of Boolean Functions (2006)

Sipser and GÃƒÂ¡cs, and independently Lautemann, proved in '83 that probabilistic polynomial time is contained in the second level of the polynomial-time hierarchy, i.e. BPP is in Sigma_2 P. This is essentially the only non-trivial upper bound that we have on the power of probabilistic computation. More precisely, the Sipser-GÃƒÂ¡cs-Lautemann simulation shows that probabilistic time can be simulated deterministically, using two quantifiers, **with a quadratic blow-up in the running time**. That is, BPTime(t) is contained in Sigma_2 Time(t^2).
In this talk we discuss whether this quadratic blow-up in the running time is necessary. We show that the quadratic blow-up is indeed necessary for black-box simulations that use two quantifiers, such as those of Sipser, GÃƒÂ¡cs, and Lautemann. To obtain this result, we prove a new circuit lower bound for computing **approximate majority**, i.e. computing the majority of a given bit-string whose fraction of 1's is bounded away from 1/2 (by a constant): We show that small depth-3 circuits for approximate majority must have bottom fan-in Omega(log n).
On the positive side, we obtain that probabilistic time can be simulated deterministically, using three quantifiers, in quasilinear time. That is, BPTime(t) is contained in Sigma_3 Time(t polylog t). Along the way, we show that approximate majority can be computed by uniform polynomial-size depth-3 circuits. This is a uniform version of a striking result by Ajtai that gives *non-uniform* polynomial-size depth-3 circuits for approximate majority.
If time permits, we will discuss some applications of our results to proving lower bounds on randomized Turing machines.

Emanuele Viola. On Probabilistic Time versus Alternating Time. In Complexity of Boolean Functions. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6111, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2006)

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@InProceedings{viola:DagSemProc.06111.11, author = {Viola, Emanuele}, title = {{On Probabilistic Time versus Alternating Time}}, booktitle = {Complexity of Boolean Functions}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2006}, volume = {6111}, editor = {Matthias Krause and Pavel Pudl\'{a}k and R\"{u}diger Reischuk and Dieter van Melkebeek}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.06111.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-6194}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.06111.11}, annote = {Keywords: Probabilistic time, alternating time, polynomial-time hierarchy, approximate majority, constant-depth circuit} }

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