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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

Zero-free based algorithms are a major technique for deterministic approximate counting. In Barvinok’s original framework [Barvinok, 2017], by calculating truncated Taylor expansions, a quasi-polynomial time algorithm was given for estimating zero-free partition functions. Patel and Regts [Patel and Regts, 2017] later gave a refinement of Barvinok’s framework, which gave a polynomial-time algorithm for a class of zero-free graph polynomials that can be expressed as counting induced subgraphs in bounded-degree graphs.
In this paper, we give a polynomial-time algorithm for estimating classical and quantum partition functions specified by local Hamiltonians with bounded maximum degree, assuming a zero-free property for the temperature. Consequently, when the inverse temperature is close enough to zero by a constant gap, we have a polynomial-time approximation algorithm for all such partition functions. Our result is based on a new abstract framework that extends and generalizes the approach of Patel and Regts.

Penghui Yao, Yitong Yin, and Xinyuan Zhang. Polynomial-Time Approximation of Zero-Free Partition Functions. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 108:1-108:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{yao_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.108, author = {Yao, Penghui and Yin, Yitong and Zhang, Xinyuan}, title = {{Polynomial-Time Approximation of Zero-Free Partition Functions}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {108:1--108:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.108}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-164494}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.108}, annote = {Keywords: partition function, zero-freeness, local Hamiltonian} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 185, 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)

Probabilistic graphical models, such as Markov random fields (MRFs), are useful for describing high-dimensional distributions in terms of local dependence structures. The {probabilistic inference} is a fundamental problem related to graphical models, and sampling is a main approach for the problem. In this paper, we study probabilistic inference problems when the graphical model itself is changing dynamically with time. Such dynamic inference problems arise naturally in today’s application, e.g. multivariate time-series data analysis and practical learning procedures.
We give a dynamic algorithm for sampling-based probabilistic inferences in MRFs, where each dynamic update can change the underlying graph and all parameters of the MRF simultaneously, as long as the total amount of changes is bounded. More precisely, suppose that the MRF has n variables and polylogarithmic-bounded maximum degree, and N(n) independent samples are sufficient for the inference for a polynomial function N(⋅). Our algorithm dynamically maintains an answer to the inference problem using Õ(n N(n)) space cost, and Õ(N(n) + n) incremental time cost upon each update to the MRF, as long as the Dobrushin-Shlosman condition is satisfied by the MRFs. This well-known condition has long been used for guaranteeing the efficiency of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling in the traditional static setting. Compared to the static case, which requires Ω(n N(n)) time cost for redrawing all N(n) samples whenever the MRF changes, our dynamic algorithm gives a 𝛺^~(min{n, N(n)})-factor speedup. Our approach relies on a novel dynamic sampling technique, which transforms local Markov chains (a.k.a. single-site dynamics) to dynamic sampling algorithms, and an "algorithmic Lipschitz" condition that we establish for sampling from graphical models, namely, when the MRF changes by a small difference, samples can be modified to reflect the new distribution, with cost proportional to the difference on MRF.

Weiming Feng, Kun He, Xiaoming Sun, and Yitong Yin. Dynamic Inference in Probabilistic Graphical Models. In 12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 185, pp. 25:1-25:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{feng_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.25, author = {Feng, Weiming and He, Kun and Sun, Xiaoming and Yin, Yitong}, title = {{Dynamic Inference in Probabilistic Graphical Models}}, booktitle = {12th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2021)}, pages = {25:1--25:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-177-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {185}, editor = {Lee, James R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.25}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-135643}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2021.25}, annote = {Keywords: Dynamic inference, probabilistic graphical model, Gibbs sampling, Markov random filed} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

The membership problem asks to maintain a set S ⊆ [u], supporting insertions and membership queries, i.e., testing if a given element is in the set. A data structure that computes exact answers is called a dictionary. When a (small) false positive rate ε is allowed, the data structure is called a filter.
The space usages of the standard dictionaries or filters usually depend on the upper bound on the size of S, while the actual set can be much smaller.
Pagh, Segev and Wieder [Pagh et al., 2013] were the first to study filters with varying space usage based on the current |S|. They showed in order to match the space with the current set size n = |S|, any filter data structure must use (1-o(1))n(log(1/ε)+(1-O(ε))log log n) bits, in contrast to the well-known lower bound of N log(1/ε) bits, where N is an upper bound on |S|. They also presented a data structure with almost optimal space of (1+o(1))n(log(1/ε)+O(log log n)) bits provided that n > u^0.001, with expected amortized constant insertion time and worst-case constant lookup time.
In this work, we present a filter data structure with improvements in two aspects:
- it has constant worst-case time for all insertions and lookups with high probability;
- it uses space (1+o(1))n(log (1/ε)+log log n) bits when n > u^0.001, achieving optimal leading constant for all ε = o(1). We also present a dictionary that uses (1+o(1))nlog(u/n) bits of space, matching the optimal space in terms of the current size, and performs all operations in constant time with high probability.

Mingmou Liu, Yitong Yin, and Huacheng Yu. Succinct Filters for Sets of Unknown Sizes. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 79:1-79:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{liu_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.79, author = {Liu, Mingmou and Yin, Yitong and Yu, Huacheng}, title = {{Succinct Filters for Sets of Unknown Sizes}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {79:1--79:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.79}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124867}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.79}, annote = {Keywords: Bloom filters, Data structures, Approximate set membership, Dictionaries} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)

We study the problem of approximately counting matchings in hypergraphs of bounded maximum degree and maximum size of hyperedges. With an activity parameter lambda, each matching M is assigned a weight lambda^{|M|}. The counting problem is formulated as computing a partition function that gives the sum of the weights of all matchings in a hypergraph. This problem unifies two extensively studied statistical physics models in approximate counting: the hardcore model (graph independent sets) and the monomer-dimer model (graph matchings).
For this model, the critical activity lambda_c= (d^d)/(k (d-1)^{d+1}) is the threshold for the uniqueness of Gibbs measures on the infinite (d+1)-uniform (k+1)-regular hypertree. Consider hypergraphs of maximum degree at most k+1 and maximum size of hyperedges at most d+1. We show that when lambda < lambda_c, there is an FPTAS for computing the partition function; and when lambda = lambda_c, there is a PTAS for computing the log-partition function. These algorithms are based on the decay of correlation (strong spatial mixing) property of Gibbs distributions. When lambda > 2lambda_c, there is no PRAS for the partition function or the log-partition function unless NP=RP.
Towards obtaining a sharp transition of computational complexity of approximate counting, we study the local convergence from a sequence of finite hypergraphs to the infinite lattice with specified symmetry. We show a surprising connection between the local convergence and the reversibility of a natural random walk. This leads us to a barrier for the hardness result: The non-uniqueness of infinite Gibbs measure is not realizable by any finite gadgets.

Renjie Song, Yitong Yin, and Jinman Zhao. Counting Hypergraph Matchings up to Uniqueness Threshold. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 46:1-46:29, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{song_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.46, author = {Song, Renjie and Yin, Yitong and Zhao, Jinman}, title = {{Counting Hypergraph Matchings up to Uniqueness Threshold}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)}, pages = {46:1--46:29}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-018-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {60}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.46}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66690}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.46}, annote = {Keywords: approximate counting; phase transition; spatial mixing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 60, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)

We study the problem of sampling almost uniform proper q-colorings in sparse Erdos-Renyi random graphs G(n,d/n), a research initiated by Dyer, Flaxman, Frieze and Vigoda [Dyer et al., RANDOM STRUCT ALGOR, 2006]. We obtain a fully polynomial time almost uniform sampler (FPAUS) for the problem provided q>3d+4, improving the current best bound q>5.5d [Efthymiou, SODA, 2014].
Our sampling algorithm works for more generalized models and broader family of sparse graphs. It is an efficient sampler (in the same sense of FPAUS) for anti-ferromagnetic Potts model with activity 0<=b<1 on G(n,d/n) provided q>3(1-b)d+4. We further identify a family of sparse graphs to which all these results can be extended. This family of graphs is characterized by the notion of contraction function, which is a new measure of the average degree in graphs.

Yitong Yin and Chihao Zhang. Sampling in Potts Model on Sparse Random Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 60, pp. 47:1-47:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{yin_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.47, author = {Yin, Yitong and Zhang, Chihao}, title = {{Sampling in Potts Model on Sparse Random Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2016)}, pages = {47:1--47:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-018-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {60}, editor = {Jansen, Klaus and Mathieu, Claire and Rolim, Jos\'{e} D. P. and Umans, Chris}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-66706}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2016.47}, annote = {Keywords: Potts model, Sampling, Random Graph, Approximation Algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 55, 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)

We prove an Omega(d/log(sw/nd)) lower bound for the average-case cell-probe complexity of deterministic or Las Vegas randomized algorithms solving approximate near-neighbor (ANN) problem in ddimensional Hamming space in the cell-probe model with w-bit cells, using a table of size s. This lower bound matches the highest known worst-case cell-probe lower bounds for any static data structure problems.
This average-case cell-probe lower bound is proved in a general framework which relates the cell-probe complexity of ANN to isoperimetric inequalities in the underlying metric space. A tighter connection between ANN lower bounds and isoperimetric inequalities is established by a stronger richness lemma proved by cell-sampling techniques.

Yitong Yin. Simple Average-Case Lower Bounds for Approximate Near-Neighbor from Isoperimetric Inequalities. In 43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 55, pp. 84:1-84:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{yin:LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.84, author = {Yin, Yitong}, title = {{Simple Average-Case Lower Bounds for Approximate Near-Neighbor from Isoperimetric Inequalities}}, booktitle = {43rd International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2016)}, pages = {84:1--84:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-013-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {55}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Mitzenmacher, Michael and Rabani, Yuval and Sangiorgi, Davide}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.84}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-62010}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2016.84}, annote = {Keywords: nearest neighbor search, approximate near-neighbor, cell-probe model, isoperimetric inequality} }

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