2 Search Results for "Grossman, Tomer"


Document
Keep That Card in Mind: Card Guessing with Limited Memory

Authors: Boaz Menuhin and Moni Naor

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
A card guessing game is played between two players, Guesser and Dealer. At the beginning of the game, the Dealer holds a deck of n cards (labeled 1, ..., n). For n turns, the Dealer draws a card from the deck, the Guesser guesses which card was drawn, and then the card is discarded from the deck. The Guesser receives a point for each correctly guessed card. With perfect memory, a Guesser can keep track of all cards that were played so far and pick at random a card that has not appeared so far, yielding in expectation ln n correct guesses, regardless of how the Dealer arranges the deck. With no memory, the best a Guesser can do will result in a single guess in expectation. We consider the case of a memory bounded Guesser that has m < n memory bits. We show that the performance of such a memory bounded Guesser depends much on the behavior of the Dealer. In more detail, we show that there is a gap between the static case, where the Dealer draws cards from a properly shuffled deck or a prearranged one, and the adaptive case, where the Dealer draws cards thoughtfully, in an adversarial manner. Specifically: 1) We show a Guesser with O(log² n) memory bits that scores a near optimal result against any static Dealer. 2) We show that no Guesser with m bits of memory can score better than O(√m) correct guesses against a random Dealer, thus, no Guesser can score better than min {√m, ln n}, i.e., the above Guesser is optimal. 3) We show an efficient adaptive Dealer against which no Guesser with m memory bits can make more than ln m + 2 ln log n + O(1) correct guesses in expectation. These results are (almost) tight, and we prove them using compression arguments that harness the guessing strategy for encoding.

Cite as

Boaz Menuhin and Moni Naor. Keep That Card in Mind: Card Guessing with Limited Memory. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 107:1-107:28, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{menuhin_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.107,
  author =	{Menuhin, Boaz and Naor, Moni},
  title =	{{Keep That Card in Mind: Card Guessing with Limited Memory}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{107:1--107:28},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.107},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-157039},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.107},
  annote =	{Keywords: Adaptivity vs Non-adaptivity, Adversarial Robustness, Card Guessing, Compression Argument, Information Theory, Streaming Algorithms, Two Player Game}
}
Document
Instance Complexity and Unlabeled Certificates in the Decision Tree Model

Authors: Tomer Grossman, Ilan Komargodski, and Moni Naor

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)


Abstract
Instance complexity is a measure of goodness of an algorithm in which the performance of one algorithm is compared to others per input. This is in sharp contrast to worst-case and average-case complexity measures, where the performance is compared either on the worst input or on an average one, respectively. We initiate the systematic study of instance complexity and optimality in the query model (a.k.a. the decision tree model). In this model, instance optimality of an algorithm for computing a function is the requirement that the complexity of an algorithm on any input is at most a constant factor larger than the complexity of the best correct algorithm. That is we compare the decision tree to one that receives a certificate and its complexity is measured only if the certificate is correct (but correctness should hold on any input). We study both deterministic and randomized decision trees and provide various characterizations and barriers for more general results. We introduce a new measure of complexity called unlabeled-certificate complexity, appropriate for graph properties and other functions with symmetries, where only information about the structure of the graph is known to the competing algorithm. More precisely, the certificate is some permutation of the input (rather than the input itself) and the correctness should be maintained even if the certificate is wrong. First we show that such an unlabeled certificate is sometimes very helpful in the worst-case. We then study instance optimality with respect to this measure of complexity, where an algorithm is said to be instance optimal if for every input it performs roughly as well as the best algorithm that is given an unlabeled certificate (but is correct on every input). We show that instance optimality depends on the group of permutations in consideration. Our proofs rely on techniques from hypothesis testing and analysis of random graphs.

Cite as

Tomer Grossman, Ilan Komargodski, and Moni Naor. Instance Complexity and Unlabeled Certificates in the Decision Tree Model. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 56:1-56:38, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)


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@InProceedings{grossman_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.56,
  author =	{Grossman, Tomer and Komargodski, Ilan and Naor, Moni},
  title =	{{Instance Complexity and Unlabeled Certificates in the Decision Tree Model}},
  booktitle =	{11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)},
  pages =	{56:1--56:38},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-134-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2020},
  volume =	{151},
  editor =	{Vidick, Thomas},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.56},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117418},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.56},
  annote =	{Keywords: decision tree complexity, instance complexity, instance optimality, query complexity, unlabeled certificates}
}
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