Distance Estimation Between Unknown Matrices Using Sublinear Projections on Hamming Cube

Authors Arijit Bishnu, Arijit Ghosh, Gopinath Mishra

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Author Details

Arijit Bishnu
  • Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India
Arijit Ghosh
  • Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India
Gopinath Mishra
  • Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India


The authors wish to thank their colleague Ansuman Banerjee for helpful discussions on GPU architecture and CUDA.

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Arijit Bishnu, Arijit Ghosh, and Gopinath Mishra. Distance Estimation Between Unknown Matrices Using Sublinear Projections on Hamming Cube. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 207, pp. 44:1-44:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)


Using geometric techniques like projection and dimensionality reduction, we show that there exists a randomized sub-linear time algorithm that can estimate the Hamming distance between two matrices. Consider two matrices A and B of size n × n whose dimensions are known to the algorithm but the entries are not. The entries of the matrix are real numbers. The access to any matrix is through an oracle that computes the projection of a row (or a column) of the matrix on a vector in {0,1}ⁿ. We call this query oracle to be an Inner Product oracle (shortened as IP). We show that our algorithm returns a (1± ε) approximation to {D}_M (A,B) with high probability by making O(n/(√{{D)_M (A,B)}}poly(log n, 1/(ε))) oracle queries, where {D}_M (A,B) denotes the Hamming distance (the number of corresponding entries in which A and B differ) between two matrices A and B of size n × n. We also show a matching lower bound on the number of such IP queries needed. Though our main result is on estimating {D}_M (A,B) using IP, we also compare our results with other query models.

Subject Classification

ACM Subject Classification
  • Theory of computation → Streaming, sublinear and near linear time algorithms
  • Distance estimation
  • Property testing
  • Dimensionality reduction
  • Sub-linear algorithms


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