Volume

Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491



Publication Details

  • published at: 2007-04-25
  • Publisher: Schloss-Dagstuhl - Leibniz Zentrum für Informatik

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Document
05491 Abstracts Collection – Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration

Authors: Anthony G. Cohn, Christian Freksa, and Bernhard Nebel


Abstract
From 04.12.05 to 09.12.05, the Dagstuhl Seminar 05491 ``Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in general. Links to extended abstracts or full papers are provided, if available.

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Anthony G. Cohn, Christian Freksa, and Bernhard Nebel. 05491 Abstracts Collection – Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, pp. 1-15, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{cohn_et_al:DagSemProc.05491.1,
  author =	{Cohn, Anthony G. and Freksa, Christian and Nebel, Bernhard},
  title =	{{05491 Abstracts Collection – Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--15},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.1},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9859},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.1},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spatial cognition, knowledge representation, spatial reasoning, spatial and linguistic ontologies, integration,cognitive robotics}
}
Document
05491 Executive Summary – Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration

Authors: Christian Freksa


Abstract
Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration

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Christian Freksa. 05491 Executive Summary – Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, p. 1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{freksa:DagSemProc.05491.2,
  author =	{Freksa, Christian},
  title =	{{05491 Executive Summary – Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--1},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.2},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9824},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.2},
  annote =	{Keywords: Ex. Summary}
}
Document
05491 Report of the Session: The Role of Spatial Cognition for Robotics

Authors: Benjamin Kuipers


Abstract
There are many well-documented peculiarities of human spatial cognition. Are these simply limitations of the human mind and brain, and the design for an intelligent robot should ignore or avoid them? Or are they unavoidable trade-offs in optimal strategies for solving the spatial problems faced by an autonomous agent? In our work on the Spatial Semantic Hierarchy (SSH), we take the latter position, focusing on the ability to express incomplete knowledge of space. At the Control level, the agent selects and follows control laws to define a discrete set of distinctive states within the continuous environment. These states, along with actions abstracting the control laws linking them, form the Causal level of the SSH. From this, we derive the Topological level, which describes the environment qualitatively in terms of places, paths, and regions, related by connectivity, order, and containment. The Hybrid SSH generalizes previous work by building local metrical maps directly from perceptual information, and by building global metrical maps on the skeleton provided by the global topological map. By having multiple representations for these kinds of incomplete spatial knowledge, we hope that the Spatial Semantic Hierarchy will contribute to understanding robustness and scalability of human spatial cognition. Papers and other information can be obtained at http://www.cs.utexas.edu/~qr/robotics/.

Cite as

Benjamin Kuipers. 05491 Report of the Session: The Role of Spatial Cognition for Robotics. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, pp. 1-5, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{kuipers:DagSemProc.05491.3,
  author =	{Kuipers, Benjamin},
  title =	{{05491 Report of the Session: The Role of Spatial Cognition for Robotics}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--5},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.3},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9819},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.3},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spatial Semantic Hierarchy, cognitive map, robot exploration, map learning}
}
Document
A Cognitive Perspective on Spatial Context

Authors: Christian Freksa, Alexander Klippel, and Stephan Winter


Abstract
This paper develops a representation-theoretic notion of spatial context for cognitive agents interacting with spatial environments. We discuss the current state of the art in defining context as used in context-aware and/or location- aware systems. In contrast to existing approaches, we define context through cognitive processes. The term "invisible geography" alludes to the fact that knowledge about geographic space develops through complex cognitive interaction and is not simply "out there" to be looked at. Placing (cognitive) processes in the focus of our context definition allows for a truly user-centered perspective: conceptualizations imbue spatial structures with meaning. This allows for fixing terminological problems and relating context definitions to work in spatial information theory and cognitive science. Although we focus on spatial context, the approach is generic and can be adapted to other domains in which cognitive aspects concerning users of information systems are central.

Cite as

Christian Freksa, Alexander Klippel, and Stephan Winter. A Cognitive Perspective on Spatial Context. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, pp. 1-16, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{freksa_et_al:DagSemProc.05491.4,
  author =	{Freksa, Christian and Klippel, Alexander and Winter, Stephan},
  title =	{{A Cognitive Perspective on Spatial Context}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--16},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.4},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9804},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.4},
  annote =	{Keywords: Representation theory, spatial context, location aware systems}
}
Document
Action Based Object Separation with Situated Agents

Authors: Christoph Flores


Abstract
Visual scene analysis can be augmented by proper manipulative actions like changing perspective or interacting with elements of the environment. They reveal some of the non-obvious (e.g. non-visual or visually ambiguous) intrinsic qualities of the scene's setting. A framing for actions is formalizable using situation semantics notification. This supports a non-classic view of perception: the perception of the situation is the action taken to inspect it, or is at least inseparably connected to it.

Cite as

Christoph Flores. Action Based Object Separation with Situated Agents. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, pp. 1-9, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{flores:DagSemProc.05491.5,
  author =	{Flores, Christoph},
  title =	{{Action Based Object Separation with Situated Agents}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--9},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.5},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-10307},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.5},
  annote =	{Keywords: Action enhanced perception, action based object separation, situatedness}
}
Document
Methods for analyzing natural discourse: Investigating spatial language in HRI vs. in a no-feedback web study

Authors: Thora Tenbrink


Abstract
The focus of interest in my research lies in the investigation of spontaneously produced natural language used to refer to the spatial position of a goal object. In this short paper I compare two central elicitation scenarios which have been useful for the investigation of speakers' strategies to achieve given discourse purposes by using spatial reference: a no-feedback web study and a human-robot interaction scenario. In both cases the task was to identify one out of several similar objects in a configuration by using spatial reference. The results of the two kinds of studies show a number of important systematic differences as well as striking parallels with respect to speakers' conceptual and linguistic strategies.

Cite as

Thora Tenbrink. Methods for analyzing natural discourse: Investigating spatial language in HRI vs. in a no-feedback web study. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, pp. 1-10, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{tenbrink:DagSemProc.05491.6,
  author =	{Tenbrink, Thora},
  title =	{{Methods for analyzing natural discourse: Investigating spatial language in HRI vs. in a no-feedback web study}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--10},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.6},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9836},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.6},
  annote =	{Keywords: Human robot interaction, discourse, spatial reference}
}
Document
Path planning and optimization in the traveling salesman problem: Nearest neighbor vs. region-based strategies

Authors: Jan Malte Wiener, Nicole N. Ehbauer, and H. A. Mallot


Abstract
According to the number of targets, route planning can be a very complex task. Human navigators, however, usually solve route planning tasks fastly and efficiently. Here two experiments are presented that studied human route planning performance, route planning strategies employed, and cognitive processes involved. For this, 25 places were arranged on a regular grid in a large room. Each place was marked by a unique symbol. Subjects were repeatedly asked to solve traveling salesman problems (TSP), i.e. to find the shortest closed loop connecting a given start place with a number of target places. For this, subjects were given a so-called 'shopping list' depicting the symbols of the start place and the target places. While the TSP is computationally hard, sufficient solutions can be found by simple strategies such as the nearest neighbor strategy. In Experiment 1, it was tested whether humans deployed the nearest neighbor strategy (NNS) when solving the TSP. Results showed that subjects outperformed the NNS in cases in which the NNS did not predict the optimal solution, suggesting that the NNS is not sufficient to explain human route planning behavior. As a second possible strategy a region-based approach was tested in Experiment 2. When optimal routes required more region transitions than other, sub-optimal routes, subjects preferred these sub-optimal routes. This result suggests that subjects first planned a coarse route on the region level and then refined the route during navigation. Such a hierarchical planning stragey would allow to reduce computational effort during route planning. In a control condition, the target places were directly marked in the environment rather than being depicted on the shopping list. As subjects did not have to identify and remember the positions of the target places based on the shopping list during route planning, this control condition tested for the influence of spatial working memory for route planning performance. Results showed a strong performance increase in the control condition, emphasizing the prominent role of spatial working memory for route planning.

Cite as

Jan Malte Wiener, Nicole N. Ehbauer, and H. A. Mallot. Path planning and optimization in the traveling salesman problem: Nearest neighbor vs. region-based strategies. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, pp. 1-21, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{wiener_et_al:DagSemProc.05491.7,
  author =	{Wiener, Jan Malte and Ehbauer, Nicole N. and Mallot, H. A.},
  title =	{{Path planning and optimization in the traveling salesman problem: Nearest neighbor vs. region-based strategies}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--21},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9848},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Spatial cognition, navigation, route planning, path complexity, traveling salesman problem, regions, hierarchical planning, nearest neighbor strategy}
}
Document
Processing networks for the classification of motion --- a proposal

Authors: Christoph Flores


Abstract
Spoken-of motion is usually conceptualised as a change of existential states (an entity moves from A to B in order to change its potentiality for further action), while perceived motion is usually only conceptualised as a change of position. As a means of technically tracking motions, we can think of processing-networks tied to both, sensors and read-out devices, that use a process orientated internal evaluation of incoming data. Properly chosen, they eliminate the difference between detecting a shift of state and detecting a shift of position. A proposal for the layout and use of processing elements in such a network is presented --- as an early general construction idea with an invitation to ask questions about its usability.

Cite as

Christoph Flores. Processing networks for the classification of motion --- a proposal. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, pp. 1-4, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{flores:DagSemProc.05491.8,
  author =	{Flores, Christoph},
  title =	{{Processing networks for the classification of motion --- a proposal}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--4},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.8},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-10310},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.8},
  annote =	{Keywords: Processing-Networks, State Change during Motion, Motion Classification}
}
Document
Qualitative Constraint Calculi: Heterogeneous Verification of Composition Tables

Authors: Stefan Wölfl, Till Mossakowski, and Lutz Schröder


Abstract
In the domain of qualitative constraint reasoning, a subfield of AI which has evolved in the past 25 years, a large number of calculi for efficient reasoning about spatial and temporal entities has been developed. Reasoning techniques developed for these constraint calculi typically rely on so-called composition tables of the calculus at hand, which allow for replacing semantic reasoning by symbolic operations. Often these composition tables are developed in a quite informal, pictorial manner and hence composition tables are prone to errors. In view of possible safety critical applications of qualitative calculi, however, it is desirable to formally verify these composition tables. In general, the verification of composition tables is a tedious task, in particular in cases where the semantics of the calculus depends on higher-order constructs such as sets. In this paper we address this problem by presenting a heterogeneous proof method that allows for combining a higher-order proof assistance system (such as Isabelle) with an automatic (first order) reasoner (such as SPASS or VAMPIRE). The benefit of this method is that the number of proof obligations that is to be proven interactively with a semi-automatic reasoner can be minimized to an acceptable level.

Cite as

Stefan Wölfl, Till Mossakowski, and Lutz Schröder. Qualitative Constraint Calculi: Heterogeneous Verification of Composition Tables. In Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 5491, pp. 1-12, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2007)


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@InProceedings{wolfl_et_al:DagSemProc.05491.9,
  author =	{W\"{o}lfl, Stefan and Mossakowski, Till and Schr\"{o}der, Lutz},
  title =	{{Qualitative Constraint Calculi: Heterogeneous Verification of Composition Tables}},
  booktitle =	{Spatial Cognition: Specialization and Integration},
  pages =	{1--12},
  series =	{Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)},
  ISSN =	{1862-4405},
  year =	{2007},
  volume =	{5491},
  editor =	{Anthony G. Cohn and Christian Freksa and Bernhard Nebel},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.9},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-9798},
  doi =		{10.4230/DagSemProc.05491.9},
  annote =	{Keywords: Knowledge representation and reasoning, geometric and spatial reasoning, qualitative reasoning, automated versus interaction proving, heterogeneous}
}

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