Document

RANDOM

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 275, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)

We show that the space-bounded Statistical Zero Knowledge classes SZK_L and NISZK_L are surprisingly robust, in that the power of the verifier and simulator can be strengthened or weakened without affecting the resulting class. Coupled with other recent characterizations of these classes [Eric Allender et al., 2023], this can be viewed as lending support to the conjecture that these classes may coincide with the non-space-bounded classes SZK and NISZK, respectively.

Eric Allender, Jacob Gray, Saachi Mutreja, Harsha Tirumala, and Pengxiang Wang. Robustness for Space-Bounded Statistical Zero Knowledge. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 275, pp. 56:1-56:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.56, author = {Allender, Eric and Gray, Jacob and Mutreja, Saachi and Tirumala, Harsha and Wang, Pengxiang}, title = {{Robustness for Space-Bounded Statistical Zero Knowledge}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2023)}, pages = {56:1--56:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-296-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {275}, editor = {Megow, Nicole and Smith, Adam}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-188815}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2023.56}, annote = {Keywords: Interactive Proofs} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 251, 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)

We show that a decidable promise problem has a non-interactive statistical zero-knowledge proof system if and only if it is randomly reducible via an honest polynomial-time reduction to a promise problem for Kolmogorov-random strings, with a superlogarithmic additive approximation term. This extends recent work by Saks and Santhanam (CCC 2022). We build on this to give new characterizations of Statistical Zero Knowledge SZK, as well as the related classes NISZK_L and SZK_L.

Eric Allender, Shuichi Hirahara, and Harsha Tirumala. Kolmogorov Complexity Characterizes Statistical Zero Knowledge. In 14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 251, pp. 3:1-3:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.3, author = {Allender, Eric and Hirahara, Shuichi and Tirumala, Harsha}, title = {{Kolmogorov Complexity Characterizes Statistical Zero Knowledge}}, booktitle = {14th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2023)}, pages = {3:1--3:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-263-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {251}, editor = {Tauman Kalai, Yael}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.3}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-175063}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2023.3}, annote = {Keywords: Kolmogorov Complexity, Interactive Proofs} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 212, 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)

A version of time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, denoted KT, has received attention in the past several years, due to its close connection to circuit complexity and to the Minimum Circuit Size Problem MCSP. Essentially all results about the complexity of MCSP hold also for MKTP (the problem of computing the KT complexity of a string). Both MKTP and MCSP are hard for SZK (Statistical Zero Knowledge) under BPP-Turing reductions; neither is known to be NP-complete.
Recently, some hardness results for MKTP were proved that are not (yet) known to hold for MCSP. In particular, MKTP is hard for DET (a subclass of P) under nonuniform ≤^{NC^0}_m reductions. In this paper, we improve this, to show that the complement of MKTP is hard for the (apparently larger) class NISZK_L under not only ≤^{NC^0}_m reductions but even under projections. Also, the complement of MKTP is hard for NISZK under ≤^{P/poly}_m reductions. Here, NISZK is the class of problems with non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs, and NISZK_L is the non-interactive version of the class SZK_L that was studied by Dvir et al.
As an application, we provide several improved worst-case to average-case reductions to problems in NP, and we obtain a new lower bound on MKTP (which is currently not known to hold for MCSP).

Eric Allender, John Gouwar, Shuichi Hirahara, and Caleb Robelle. Cryptographic Hardness Under Projections for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity. In 32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 212, pp. 54:1-54:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.54, author = {Allender, Eric and Gouwar, John and Hirahara, Shuichi and Robelle, Caleb}, title = {{Cryptographic Hardness Under Projections for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2021)}, pages = {54:1--54:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-214-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {212}, editor = {Ahn, Hee-Kap and Sadakane, Kunihiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154875}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2021.54}, annote = {Keywords: Kolmogorov Complexity, Interactive Proofs, Minimum Circuit Size Problem, Worst-case to Average-case Reductions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 213, 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)

One-way functions (OWFs) are central objects of study in cryptography and computational complexity theory. In a seminal work, Liu and Pass (FOCS 2020) proved that the average-case hardness of computing time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity is equivalent to the existence of OWFs. It remained an open problem to establish such an equivalence for the average-case hardness of some natural NP-complete problem. In this paper, we make progress on this question by studying a conditional variant of the Minimum KT-complexity Problem (MKTP), which we call McKTP, as follows.
1) First, we prove that if McKTP is average-case hard on a polynomial fraction of its instances, then there exist OWFs.
2) Then, we observe that McKTP is NP-complete under polynomial-time randomized reductions.
3) Finally, we prove that the existence of OWFs implies the nontrivial average-case hardness of McKTP. Thus the existence of OWFs is inextricably linked to the average-case hardness of this NP-complete problem. In fact, building on recently-announced results of Ren and Santhanam [Rahul Ilango et al., 2021], we show that McKTP is hard-on-average if and only if there are logspace-computable OWFs.

Eric Allender, Mahdi Cheraghchi, Dimitrios Myrisiotis, Harsha Tirumala, and Ilya Volkovich. One-Way Functions and a Conditional Variant of MKTP. In 41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 213, pp. 7:1-7:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.7, author = {Allender, Eric and Cheraghchi, Mahdi and Myrisiotis, Dimitrios and Tirumala, Harsha and Volkovich, Ilya}, title = {{One-Way Functions and a Conditional Variant of MKTP}}, booktitle = {41st IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2021)}, pages = {7:1--7:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-215-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {213}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Chekuri, Chandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-155181}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2021.7}, annote = {Keywords: Kolmogorov complexity, KT Complexity, Minimum KT-complexity Problem, MKTP, Conditional KT Complexity, Minimum Conditional KT-complexity Problem, McKTP, one-way functions, OWFs, average-case hardness, pseudorandom generators, PRGs, pseudorandom functions, PRFs, distinguishers, learning algorithms, NP-completeness, reductions} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 202, 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)

We present an algorithm for constructing a depth-first search tree in planar digraphs; the algorithm can be implemented in the complexity class AC^1(UL∩co-UL), which is contained in AC². Prior to this (for more than a quarter-century), the fastest uniform deterministic parallel algorithm for this problem was O(log^{10}n) (corresponding to the complexity class AC^{10} ⊆ NC^{11}).
We also consider the problem of computing depth-first search trees in other classes of graphs, and obtain additional new upper bounds.

Eric Allender, Archit Chauhan, and Samir Datta. Depth-First Search in Directed Planar Graphs, Revisited. In 46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 202, pp. 7:1-7:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.7, author = {Allender, Eric and Chauhan, Archit and Datta, Samir}, title = {{Depth-First Search in Directed Planar Graphs, Revisited}}, booktitle = {46th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2021)}, pages = {7:1--7:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-201-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {202}, editor = {Bonchi, Filippo and Puglisi, Simon J.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-144478}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.7}, annote = {Keywords: Depth-First Search, Planar Digraphs, Parallel Algorithms, Space-Bounded Complexity Classes} }

Document

APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

Variants of the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH) have been used to derive lower bounds on the time complexity for certain problems, so that the hardness results match long-standing algorithmic results. In this paper, we consider a syntactically defined class of problems, and give conditions for when problems in this class require strongly exponential time to approximate to within a factor of (1-epsilon) for some constant epsilon > 0, assuming the Gap Exponential Time Hypothesis (Gap-ETH), versus when they admit a PTAS. Our class includes a rich set of problems from additive combinatorics, computational geometry, and graph theory. Our hardness results also match the best known algorithmic results for these problems.

Eric Allender, Martín Farach-Colton, and Meng-Tsung Tsai. Syntactic Separation of Subset Satisfiability Problems. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 16:1-16:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.16, author = {Allender, Eric and Farach-Colton, Mart{\'\i}n and Tsai, Meng-Tsung}, title = {{Syntactic Separation of Subset Satisfiability Problems}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {16:1--16:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.16}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112319}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.16}, annote = {Keywords: Syntactic Class, Exponential Time Hypothesis, APX, PTAS} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

We study the computational power of deciding whether a given truth-table can be described by a circuit of a given size (the Minimum Circuit Size Problem, or MCSP for short), and of the variant denoted MKTP where circuit size is replaced by a polynomially-related Kolmogorov measure. All prior reductions from supposedly-intractable problems to MCSP / MKTP hinged on the power of MCSP / MKTP to distinguish random distributions from distributions produced by hardness-based pseudorandom generator constructions. We develop a fundamentally different approach inspired by the well-known interactive proof system for the complement of Graph Isomorphism (GI). It yields a randomized reduction with zero-sided error from GI to MKTP. We generalize the result and show that GI can be replaced by any isomorphism problem for which the underlying group satisfies some elementary properties. Instantiations include Linear Code Equivalence, Permutation Group Conjugacy, and Matrix Subspace Conjugacy. Along the way we develop encodings of isomorphism classes that are efficiently decodable and achieve compression that is at or near the information-theoretic optimum; those encodings may be of independent interest.

Eric Allender, Joshua A. Grochow, Dieter van Melkebeek, Cristopher Moore, and Andrew Morgan. Minimum Circuit Size, Graph Isomorphism, and Related Problems. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 20:1-20:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.20, author = {Allender, Eric and Grochow, Joshua A. and van Melkebeek, Dieter and Moore, Cristopher and Morgan, Andrew}, title = {{Minimum Circuit Size, Graph Isomorphism, and Related Problems}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {20:1--20:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.20}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83455}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.20}, annote = {Keywords: Reductions between NP-intermediate problems, Graph Isomorphism, Minimum Circuit Size Problem, time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 83, 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)

Cost register automata (CRAs) are one-way finite automata whose transitions have the side effect that a register is set to the result of applying a state-dependent semiring operation to a pair of registers. Here it is shown that CRAs over the tropical semiring (N U {infinity},\min,+) can simulate polynomial time computation, proving along the way that a naturally defined width-k circuit value problem over the tropical semiring is P-complete.
Then the copyless variant of the CRA, requiring that semiring operations be applied to distinct registers, is shown no more powerful than NC^1 when the semiring is (Z,+,x) or (Gamma^*,max,concat). This relates questions left open in recent work on the complexity of CRA-computable functions to long-standing class separation conjectures in complexity theory, such as NC versus P and NC^1 versus GapNC^1.

Eric Allender, Andreas Krebs, and Pierre McKenzie. Better Complexity Bounds for Cost Register Automata. In 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 83, pp. 24:1-24:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.24, author = {Allender, Eric and Krebs, Andreas and McKenzie, Pierre}, title = {{Better Complexity Bounds for Cost Register Automata}}, booktitle = {42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)}, pages = {24:1--24:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-046-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {83}, editor = {Larsen, Kim G. and Bodlaender, Hans L. and Raskin, Jean-Francois}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-80661}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.24}, annote = {Keywords: computational complexity, cost registers} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 83, 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)

The Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP) and a related problem (MKTP) that deals with time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity are prominent candidates for NP-intermediate status. We show that, under very modest cryptographic assumptions (such as the existence of one-way functions), the problem of approximating the minimum circuit size (or time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity) within a factor of n^{1 - o(1)} is indeed NP-intermediate. To the best of our knowledge, these problems are the first natural NP-intermediate problems under the existence of an arbitrary one-way function.
We also prove that MKTP is hard for the complexity class DET under
non-uniform NC^0 reductions. This is surprising, since prior work on MCSP and MKTP had highlighted weaknesses of "local" reductions such as NC^0 reductions. We exploit this local reduction to obtain several new consequences:
* MKTP is not in AC^0[p].
* Circuit size lower bounds are equivalent to hardness of a relativized version MKTP^A of MKTP under a class of uniform AC^0 reductions, for a large class of sets A.
* Hardness of MCSP^A implies hardness of MKTP^A for a wide class of
sets A. This is the first result directly relating the complexity of
MCSP^A and MKTP^A, for any A.

Eric Allender and Shuichi Hirahara. New Insights on the (Non-)Hardness of Circuit Minimization and Related Problems. In 42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 83, pp. 54:1-54:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.54, author = {Allender, Eric and Hirahara, Shuichi}, title = {{New Insights on the (Non-)Hardness of Circuit Minimization and Related Problems}}, booktitle = {42nd International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2017)}, pages = {54:1--54:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-046-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2017}, volume = {83}, editor = {Larsen, Kim G. and Bodlaender, Hans L. and Raskin, Jean-Francois}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.54}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-80636}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2017.54}, annote = {Keywords: computational complexity, Kolmogorov complexity, circuit size} }

Document

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 30, 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)

We consider variants of the Minimum Circuit Size Problem MCSP, where the goal is to minimize the size of oracle circuits computing a given function. When the oracle is QBF, the resulting problem MCSP^QBF
is known to be complete for PSPACE under ZPP reductions. We show that it is not complete under logspace reductions, and indeed it is not even hard for TC under uniform AC^0 reductions. We obtain a variety of consequences that follow if oracle versions of MCSP are hard for various complexity classes under different types of reductions. We also prove analogous results for the problem of determining the resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity of strings, for certain types of Kolmogorov complexity measures.

Eric Allender, Dhiraj Holden, and Valentine Kabanets. The Minimum Oracle Circuit Size Problem. In 32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 30, pp. 21-33, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2015.21, author = {Allender, Eric and Holden, Dhiraj and Kabanets, Valentine}, title = {{The Minimum Oracle Circuit Size Problem}}, booktitle = {32nd International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2015)}, pages = {21--33}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-78-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {30}, editor = {Mayr, Ernst W. and Ollinger, Nicolas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.21}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-49013}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2015.21}, annote = {Keywords: Kolmogorov complexity, minimum circuit size problem, PSPACE, NP-intermediate sets} }

Document

**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6111, Complexity of Boolean Functions (2006)

We study two quite different approaches to understanding the complexity of fundamental problems in numerical analysis. We show that both hinge on the question of understanding the complexity of the following problem, which we call PosSlp: Given a division-free straight-line program producing an integer N, decide whether N>0. We show that OrdSlp lies in the counting hierarchy, and combining our results with work of Tiwari, we show that the Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem lies in the counting hierarchy – the previous best upper bound for this important problem (in terms of classical complexity classes) being PSPACE.

Eric Allender, Peter Bürgisser, Johan Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, and Peter Bro Miltersen. On the Complexity of Numerical Analysis. In Complexity of Boolean Functions. Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Volume 6111, pp. 1-9, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2006)

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@InProceedings{allender_et_al:DagSemProc.06111.12, author = {Allender, Eric and B\"{u}rgisser, Peter and Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Johan and Miltersen, Peter Bro}, title = {{On the Complexity of Numerical Analysis}}, booktitle = {Complexity of Boolean Functions}, pages = {1--9}, series = {Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings (DagSemProc)}, ISSN = {1862-4405}, year = {2006}, volume = {6111}, editor = {Matthias Krause and Pavel Pudl\'{a}k and R\"{u}diger Reischuk and Dieter van Melkebeek}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemProc.06111.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-6130}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemProc.06111.12}, annote = {Keywords: Blum-Shub-Smale Model, Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem, Counting Hierarchy} }

Document

**Published in:** Dagstuhl Seminar Reports. Dagstuhl Seminar Reports, Volume 1 (2021)

Eric Allender, Uwe Schöning, and Klaus W. Wagner. Structure and Complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 9640). Dagstuhl Seminar Report 158, pp. 1-22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (1996)

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@TechReport{allender_et_al:DagSemRep.158, author = {Allender, Eric and Sch\"{o}ning, Uwe and Wagner, Klaus W.}, title = {{Structure and Complexity (Dagstuhl Seminar 9640)}}, pages = {1--22}, ISSN = {1619-0203}, year = {1996}, type = {Dagstuhl Seminar Report}, number = {158}, institution = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/DagSemRep.158}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-150450}, doi = {10.4230/DagSemRep.158}, }

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