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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 297, 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)

A class of graphs admits an adjacency labeling scheme of size b(n), if the vertices in each of its n-vertex graphs can be assigned binary strings (called labels) of length b(n) so that the adjacency of two vertices can be determined solely from their labels.
We give bounds on the size of adjacency labels for every family of monotone (i.e., subgraph-closed) classes with a "well-behaved" growth function between 2^Ω(n log n) and 2^O(n^{2-δ}) for any δ > 0. Specifically, we show that for any function f: ℕ → ℝ satisfying log n ⩽ f(n) ⩽ n^{1-δ} for any fixed δ > 0, and some sub-multiplicativity condition, there are monotone graph classes with growth 2^O(nf(n)) that do not admit adjacency labels of size at most f(n) log n. On the other hand, any such class does admit adjacency labels of size O(f(n)log n). Surprisingly this bound is a Θ(log n) factor away from the information-theoretic bound of Ω(f(n)). Our bounds are tight upto constant factors, and the special case when f = log implies that the recently-refuted Implicit Graph Conjecture [Hatami and Hatami, FOCS 2022] also fails within monotone classes.
We further show that the Implicit Graph Conjecture holds for all monotone small classes. In other words, any monotone class with growth rate at most n! cⁿ for some constant c > 0, admits adjacency labels of information-theoretic order optimal size. In fact, we show a more general result that is of independent interest: any monotone small class of graphs has bounded degeneracy. We conjecture that the Implicit Graph Conjecture holds for all hereditary small classes.

Édouard Bonnet, Julien Duron, John Sylvester, Viktor Zamaraev, and Maksim Zhukovskii. Tight Bounds on Adjacency Labels for Monotone Graph Classes. In 51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 297, pp. 31:1-31:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.31, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien and Sylvester, John and Zamaraev, Viktor and Zhukovskii, Maksim}, title = {{Tight Bounds on Adjacency Labels for Monotone Graph Classes}}, booktitle = {51st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2024)}, pages = {31:1--31:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-322-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {297}, editor = {Bringmann, Karl and Grohe, Martin and Puppis, Gabriele and Svensson, Ola}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.31}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-201741}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2024.31}, annote = {Keywords: Adjacency labeling, degeneracy, monotone classes, small classes, factorial classes, implicit graph conjecture} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We introduce a new parameter, called stretch-width, that we show sits strictly between clique-width and twin-width. Unlike the reduced parameters [BKW '22], planar graphs and polynomial subdivisions do not have bounded stretch-width. This leaves open the possibility of efficient algorithms for a broad fragment of problems within Monadic Second-Order (MSO) logic on graphs of bounded stretch-width. In this direction, we prove that graphs of bounded maximum degree and bounded stretch-width have at most logarithmic treewidth. As a consequence, in classes of bounded stretch-width, Maximum Independent Set can be solved in subexponential time 2^{Õ(n^{8/9})} on n-vertex graphs, and, if further the maximum degree is bounded, Existential Counting Modal Logic [Pilipczuk '11] can be model-checked in polynomial time. We also give a polynomial-time O(OPT²)-approximation for the stretch-width of symmetric 0,1-matrices or ordered graphs.
Somewhat unexpectedly, we prove that exponential subdivisions of bounded-degree graphs have bounded stretch-width. This allows to complement the logarithmic upper bound of treewidth with a matching lower bound. We leave as open the existence of an efficient approximation algorithm for the stretch-width of unordered graphs, if the exponential subdivisions of all graphs have bounded stretch-width, and if graphs of bounded stretch-width have logarithmic clique-width (or rank-width).

Édouard Bonnet and Julien Duron. Stretch-Width. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 8:1-8:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.8, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien}, title = {{Stretch-Width}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {8:1--8:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194279}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.8}, annote = {Keywords: Contraction sequences, twin-width, clique-width, algorithms, algorithmic metatheorems} }

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PACE Solver Description

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We present RedAlert, a heuristic solver for twin-width, submitted to the Heuristic Track of the 2023 edition of the Parameterized Algorithms and Computational Experiments (PACE) challenge.

Édouard Bonnet and Julien Duron. PACE Solver Description: RedAlert - Heuristic Track. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 40:1-40:5, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.40, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien}, title = {{PACE Solver Description: RedAlert - Heuristic Track}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {40:1--40:5}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194591}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.40}, annote = {Keywords: twin-width, contraction sequences, heuristic, pair sampling, pair filtering} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

Dallard, Milanič, and Štorgel [arXiv '22] ask if, for every class excluding a fixed planar graph H as an induced minor, Maximum Independent Set can be solved in polynomial time, and show that this is indeed the case when H is any planar complete bipartite graph, or the 5-vertex clique minus one edge, or minus two disjoint edges. A positive answer would constitute a far-reaching generalization of the state-of-the-art, when we currently do not know if a polynomial-time algorithm exists when H is the 7-vertex path. Relaxing tractability to the existence of a quasipolynomial-time algorithm, we know substantially more. Indeed, quasipolynomial-time algorithms were recently obtained for the t-vertex cycle, C_t [Gartland et al., STOC '21], and the disjoint union of t triangles, tC₃ [Bonamy et al., SODA '23].
We give, for every integer t, a polynomial-time algorithm running in n^O(t⁵) when H is the friendship graph K₁ + tK₂ (t disjoint edges plus a vertex fully adjacent to them), and a quasipolynomial-time algorithm running in n^{O(t² log n) + f(t)}, with f a single-exponential function, when H is tC₃ ⊎ C₄ (the disjoint union of t triangles and a 4-vertex cycle). The former generalizes the algorithm readily obtained from Alekseev’s structural result on graphs excluding tK₂ as an induced subgraph [Alekseev, DAM '07], while the latter extends Bonamy et al.’s result.

Édouard Bonnet, Julien Duron, Colin Geniet, Stéphan Thomassé, and Alexandra Wesolek. Maximum Independent Set When Excluding an Induced Minor: K₁ + tK₂ and tC₃ ⊎ C₄. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 23:1-23:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bonnet_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.23, author = {Bonnet, \'{E}douard and Duron, Julien and Geniet, Colin and Thomass\'{e}, St\'{e}phan and Wesolek, Alexandra}, title = {{Maximum Independent Set When Excluding an Induced Minor: K₁ + tK₂ and tC₃ ⊎ C₄}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {23:1--23:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186769}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.23}, annote = {Keywords: Maximum Independent Set, forbidden induced minors, quasipolynomial-time algorithms} }