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Documents authored by Eden, Alon


Document
Cursed yet Satisfied Agents

Authors: Yiling Chen, Alon Eden, and Juntao Wang

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)


Abstract
In real-life auctions, a widely observed phenomenon is the winner’s curse - the winner’s high bid implies that the winner often overestimates the value of the good for sale, resulting in an incurred negative utility. The seminal work of Eyster and Rabin [Econometrica'05] introduced a behavioral model aimed to explain this observed anomaly. We term agents who display this bias "cursed agents." We adopt their model in the interdependent value setting, and aim to devise mechanisms that prevent the agents from obtaining negative utility. We design mechanisms that are cursed ex-post incentive compatible, that is, incentivize agents to bid their true signal even though they are cursed, while ensuring that the outcome is ex-post individually rational (EPIR) - the price the agents pay is no more than the agents' true value. Since the agents might overestimate the value of the allocated good, such mechanisms might require the seller to make positive (monetary) transfers to the agents in order to prevent agents from over-paying for the good. While the revenue of the seller not requiring EPIR might increase when agents are cursed, when imposing EPIR, cursed agents will always pay less than fully rational agents (due to the positive transfers the seller makes). We devise revenue and welfare maximizing mechanisms for cursed agents. For revenue maximization, we give the optimal deterministic and anonymous mechanism. For welfare maximization, we require ex-post budget balance (EPBB), as positive transfers might cause the seller to have negative revenue. We propose a masking operation that takes any deterministic mechanism, and masks the allocation whenever the seller requires to make positive transfers. The masking operation ensures that the mechanism is both EPIR and EPBB. We show that in typical settings, EPBB implies that the mechanism cannot make any positive transfers. Thus, applying the masking operation on the fully efficient mechanism results in a socially optimal EPBB mechanism. This further implies that if the valuation function is the maximum of agents' signals, the optimal EPBB mechanism obtains zero welfare. In contrast, we show that for sum-concave valuations, which include weighted-sum valuations and 𝓁_p-norms, the welfare optimal EPBB mechanism obtains half of the optimal welfare as the number of agents grows large.

Cite as

Yiling Chen, Alon Eden, and Juntao Wang. Cursed yet Satisfied Agents. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, p. 44:1, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)


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@InProceedings{chen_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.44,
  author =	{Chen, Yiling and Eden, Alon and Wang, Juntao},
  title =	{{Cursed yet Satisfied Agents}},
  booktitle =	{13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)},
  pages =	{44:1--44:1},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-217-4},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2022},
  volume =	{215},
  editor =	{Braverman, Mark},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.44},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156407},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.44},
  annote =	{Keywords: Mechanism Design, Interdependent Valuation Auction, Bounded Rationality, Cursed Equilibrium, Winner’s curse}
}
Document
APPROX
Max-Min Greedy Matching

Authors: Alon Eden, Uriel Feige, and Michal Feldman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)


Abstract
A bipartite graph G(U,V;E) that admits a perfect matching is given. One player imposes a permutation pi over V, the other player imposes a permutation sigma over U. In the greedy matching algorithm, vertices of U arrive in order sigma and each vertex is matched to the highest (under pi) yet unmatched neighbor in V (or left unmatched, if all its neighbors are already matched). The obtained matching is maximal, thus matches at least a half of the vertices. The max-min greedy matching problem asks: suppose the first (max) player reveals pi, and the second (min) player responds with the worst possible sigma for pi, does there exist a permutation pi ensuring to match strictly more than a half of the vertices? Can such a permutation be computed in polynomial time? The main result of this paper is an affirmative answer for these questions: we show that there exists a polytime algorithm to compute pi for which for every sigma at least rho > 0.51 fraction of the vertices of V are matched. We provide additional lower and upper bounds for special families of graphs, including regular and Hamiltonian graphs. Our solution solves an open problem regarding the welfare guarantees attainable by pricing in sequential markets with binary unit-demand valuations.

Cite as

Alon Eden, Uriel Feige, and Michal Feldman. Max-Min Greedy Matching. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 7:1-7:23, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{eden_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.7,
  author =	{Eden, Alon and Feige, Uriel and Feldman, Michal},
  title =	{{Max-Min Greedy Matching}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)},
  pages =	{7:1--7:23},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-125-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{145},
  editor =	{Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.7},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112229},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.7},
  annote =	{Keywords: Online matching, Pricing mechanism, Markets}
}
Document
APPROX
Dynamic Pricing of Servers on Trees

Authors: Ilan Reuven Cohen, Alon Eden, Amos Fiat, and Łukasz Jeż

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)


Abstract
In this paper we consider the k-server problem where events are generated by selfish agents, known as the selfish k-server problem. In this setting, there is a set of k servers located in some metric space. Selfish agents arrive in an online fashion, each has a request located on some point in the metric space, and seeks to serve his request with the server of minimum distance to the request. If agents choose to serve their request with the nearest server, this mimics the greedy algorithm which has an unbounded competitive ratio. We propose an algorithm that associates a surcharge with each server independently of the agent to arrive (and therefore, yields a truthful online mechanism). An agent chooses to serve his request with the server that minimizes the distance to the request plus the associated surcharge to the server. This paper extends [Ilan Reuven Cohen et al., 2015], which gave an optimal k-competitive dynamic pricing scheme for the selfish k-server problem on the line. We give a k-competitive dynamic pricing algorithm for the selfish k-server problem on tree metric spaces, which matches the optimal online (non truthful) algorithm. We show that an alpha-competitive dynamic pricing scheme exists on the tree if and only if there exists alpha-competitive online algorithm on the tree that is lazy and monotone. Given this characterization, the main technical difficulty is coming up with such an online algorithm.

Cite as

Ilan Reuven Cohen, Alon Eden, Amos Fiat, and Łukasz Jeż. Dynamic Pricing of Servers on Trees. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 10:1-10:22, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)


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@InProceedings{cohen_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.10,
  author =	{Cohen, Ilan Reuven and Eden, Alon and Fiat, Amos and Je\.{z}, {\L}ukasz},
  title =	{{Dynamic Pricing of Servers on Trees}},
  booktitle =	{Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)},
  pages =	{10:1--10:22},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-125-2},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2019},
  volume =	{145},
  editor =	{Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.10},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112252},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.10},
  annote =	{Keywords: Online algorithms, Online mechanisms, k-server problem, Online pricing}
}
Document
Truthful Prompt Scheduling for Minimizing Sum of Completion Times

Authors: Alon Eden, Michal Feldman, Amos Fiat, and Tzahi Taub

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 112, 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)


Abstract
We give a prompt online mechanism for minimizing the sum of [weighted] completion times. This is the first prompt online algorithm for the problem. When such jobs are strategic agents, delaying scheduling decisions makes little sense. Moreover, the mechanism has a particularly simple form of an anonymous menu of options.

Cite as

Alon Eden, Michal Feldman, Amos Fiat, and Tzahi Taub. Truthful Prompt Scheduling for Minimizing Sum of Completion Times. In 26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 112, pp. 27:1-27:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)


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@InProceedings{eden_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2018.27,
  author =	{Eden, Alon and Feldman, Michal and Fiat, Amos and Taub, Tzahi},
  title =	{{Truthful Prompt Scheduling for Minimizing Sum of Completion Times}},
  booktitle =	{26th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2018)},
  pages =	{27:1--27:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-081-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2018},
  volume =	{112},
  editor =	{Azar, Yossi and Bast, Hannah and Herman, Grzegorz},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.27},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94905},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2018.27},
  annote =	{Keywords: Scheduling, Mechanism design, Online algorithms}
}
Document
Pricing Social Goods

Authors: Alon Eden, Tomer Ezra, and Michal Feldman

Published in: LIPIcs, Volume 87, 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)


Abstract
Social goods are goods that grant value not only to their owners but also to the owners' surroundings, be it their families, friends or office mates. The benefit a non-owner derives from the good is affected by many factors, including the type of the good, its availability, and the social status of the non-owner. Depending on the magnitude of the benefit and on the price of the good, a potential buyer might stay away from purchasing the good, hoping to free ride on others' purchases. A revenue-maximizing seller who sells social goods must take these considerations into account when setting prices for the good. The literature on optimal pricing has advanced considerably over the last decade, but little is known about optimal pricing schemes for selling social goods. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of revenue-maximizing pricing schemes for social goods: we introduce a Bayesian model for this scenario, and devise nearly-optimal pricing schemes for various types of externalities, both for simultaneous sales and for sequential sales.

Cite as

Alon Eden, Tomer Ezra, and Michal Feldman. Pricing Social Goods. In 25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 87, pp. 35:1-35:14, Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2017)


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@InProceedings{eden_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2017.35,
  author =	{Eden, Alon and Ezra, Tomer and Feldman, Michal},
  title =	{{Pricing Social Goods}},
  booktitle =	{25th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2017)},
  pages =	{35:1--35:14},
  series =	{Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)},
  ISBN =	{978-3-95977-049-1},
  ISSN =	{1868-8969},
  year =	{2017},
  volume =	{87},
  editor =	{Pruhs, Kirk and Sohler, Christian},
  publisher =	{Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik},
  address =	{Dagstuhl, Germany},
  URL =		{https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.35},
  URN =		{urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-78717},
  doi =		{10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2017.35},
  annote =	{Keywords: Public Goods, Posted Prices, Revenue Maximization, Externalities}
}
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