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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 286, 27th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2023)

Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms are a widely-used algorithmic tool for sampling from high-dimensional distributions, a notable example is the equilibirum distribution of graphical models. The Glauber dynamics, also known as the Gibbs sampler, is the simplest example of an MCMC algorithm; the transitions of the chain update the configuration at a randomly chosen coordinate at each step. Several works have studied distributed versions of the Glauber dynamics and we extend these efforts to a more general family of Markov chains. An important combinatorial problem in the study of MCMC algorithms is random colorings. Given a graph G of maximum degree Δ and an integer k ≥ Δ+1, the goal is to generate a random proper vertex k-coloring of G.
Jerrum (1995) proved that the Glauber dynamics has O(nlog{n}) mixing time when k > 2Δ. Fischer and Ghaffari (2018), and independently Feng, Hayes, and Yin (2018), presented a parallel and distributed version of the Glauber dynamics which converges in O(log{n}) rounds for k > (2+ε)Δ for any ε > 0. We improve this result to k > (11/6-δ)Δ for a fixed δ > 0. This matches the state of the art for randomly sampling colorings of general graphs in the sequential setting. Whereas previous works focused on distributed variants of the Glauber dynamics, our work presents a parallel and distributed version of the more general flip dynamics presented by Vigoda (2000) (and refined by Chen, Delcourt, Moitra, Perarnau, and Postle (2019)), which recolors local maximal two-colored components in each step.

Charlie Carlson, Daniel Frishberg, and Eric Vigoda. Improved Distributed Algorithms for Random Colorings. In 27th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 286, pp. 13:1-13:18, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{carlson_et_al:LIPIcs.OPODIS.2023.13, author = {Carlson, Charlie and Frishberg, Daniel and Vigoda, Eric}, title = {{Improved Distributed Algorithms for Random Colorings}}, booktitle = {27th International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2023)}, pages = {13:1--13:18}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-308-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {286}, editor = {Bessani, Alysson and D\'{e}fago, Xavier and Nakamura, Junya and Wada, Koichi and Yamauchi, Yukiko}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2023.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195030}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.OPODIS.2023.13}, annote = {Keywords: Distributed Graph Algorithms, Local Algorithms, Coloring, Glauber Dynamics, Sampling, Markov Chains} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 283, 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)

We give a new rapid mixing result for a natural random walk on the independent sets of a graph G. We show that when G has bounded treewidth, this random walk - known as the Glauber dynamics for the hardcore model - mixes rapidly for all fixed values of the standard parameter λ > 0, giving a simple alternative to existing sampling algorithms for these structures. We also show rapid mixing for analogous Markov chains on dominating sets, b-edge covers, b-matchings, maximal independent sets, and maximal b-matchings. (For b-matchings, maximal independent sets, and maximal b-matchings we also require bounded degree.) Our results imply simpler alternatives to known algorithms for the sampling and approximate counting problems in these graphs. We prove our results by applying a divide-and-conquer framework we developed in a previous paper, as an alternative to the projection-restriction technique introduced by Jerrum, Son, Tetali, and Vigoda. We extend this prior framework to handle chains for which the application of that framework is not straightforward, strengthening existing results by Dyer, Goldberg, and Jerrum and by Heinrich for the Glauber dynamics on q-colorings of graphs of bounded treewidth and bounded degree.

David Eppstein and Daniel Frishberg. Rapid Mixing for the Hardcore Glauber Dynamics and Other Markov Chains in Bounded-Treewidth Graphs. In 34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 283, pp. 30:1-30:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{eppstein_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.30, author = {Eppstein, David and Frishberg, Daniel}, title = {{Rapid Mixing for the Hardcore Glauber Dynamics and Other Markov Chains in Bounded-Treewidth Graphs}}, booktitle = {34th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2023)}, pages = {30:1--30:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-289-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {283}, editor = {Iwata, Satoru and Kakimura, Naonori}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.30}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-193324}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2023.30}, annote = {Keywords: Glauber dynamics, mixing time, projection-restriction, multicommodity flow} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

We prove that the well-studied triangulation flip walk on a convex point set mixes in time O(n³ log³ n), the first progress since McShine and Tetali’s O(n⁵ log n) bound in 1997. In the process we give lower and upper bounds of respectively Ω(1/(√n log n)) and O(1/√n) - asymptotically tight up to an O(log n) factor - for the expansion of the associahedron graph K_n. The upper bound recovers Molloy, Reed, and Steiger’s Ω(n^(3/2)) bound on the mixing time of the walk. To obtain these results, we introduce a framework consisting of a set of sufficient conditions under which a given Markov chain mixes rapidly. This framework is a purely combinatorial analogue that in some circumstances gives better results than the projection-restriction technique of Jerrum, Son, Tetali, and Vigoda. In particular, in addition to the result for triangulations, we show quasipolynomial mixing for the k-angulation flip walk on a convex point set, for fixed k ≥ 4.

David Eppstein and Daniel Frishberg. Improved Mixing for the Convex Polygon Triangulation Flip Walk. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 56:1-56:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{eppstein_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.56, author = {Eppstein, David and Frishberg, Daniel}, title = {{Improved Mixing for the Convex Polygon Triangulation Flip Walk}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {56:1--56:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.56}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181081}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.56}, annote = {Keywords: associahedron, mixing time, mcmc, Markov chains, triangulations, quadrangulations, k-angulations, multicommodity flow, projection-restriction} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 157, 10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021) (2020)

The objective of the well-known Towers of Hanoi puzzle is to move a set of disks one at a time from one of a set of pegs to another, while keeping the disks sorted on each peg. We propose an adversarial variation in which the first player forbids a set of states in the puzzle, and the second player must then convert one randomly-selected state to another without passing through forbidden states. Analyzing this version raises the question of the treewidth of Hanoi graphs. We find this number exactly for three-peg puzzles and provide nearly-tight asymptotic bounds for larger numbers of pegs.

David Eppstein, Daniel Frishberg, and William Maxwell. On the Treewidth of Hanoi Graphs. In 10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 157, pp. 13:1-13:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{eppstein_et_al:LIPIcs.FUN.2021.13, author = {Eppstein, David and Frishberg, Daniel and Maxwell, William}, title = {{On the Treewidth of Hanoi Graphs}}, booktitle = {10th International Conference on Fun with Algorithms (FUN 2021)}, pages = {13:1--13:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-145-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {157}, editor = {Farach-Colton, Martin and Prencipe, Giuseppe and Uehara, Ryuhei}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2021.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-127741}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FUN.2021.13}, annote = {Keywords: Hanoi graph, Treewidth, Graph separators, Kneser graph, Vertex expansion, Haven, Tensor product} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 162, 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)

We formalize the simplification of activity-on-edge graphs used for visualizing project schedules, where the vertices of the graphs represent project milestones, and the edges represent either tasks of the project or timing constraints between milestones. In this framework, a timeline of the project can be constructed as a leveled drawing of the graph, where the levels of the vertices represent the time at which each milestone is scheduled to happen. We focus on the following problem: given an activity-on-edge graph representing a project, find an equivalent activity-on-edge graph—one with the same critical paths—that has the minimum possible number of milestone vertices among all equivalent activity-on-edge graphs. We provide an O(mn²)-time algorithm for solving this graph minimization problem.

David Eppstein, Daniel Frishberg, and Elham Havvaei. Simplifying Activity-On-Edge Graphs. In 17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 162, pp. 24:1-24:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{eppstein_et_al:LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.24, author = {Eppstein, David and Frishberg, Daniel and Havvaei, Elham}, title = {{Simplifying Activity-On-Edge Graphs}}, booktitle = {17th Scandinavian Symposium and Workshops on Algorithm Theory (SWAT 2020)}, pages = {24:1--24:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-150-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {162}, editor = {Albers, Susanne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.24}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-122718}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.SWAT.2020.24}, annote = {Keywords: directed acyclic graph, activity-on-edge graph, critical path, project planning, milestone minimization, graph visualization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 149, 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)

We show new applications of the nearest-neighbor chain algorithm, a technique that originated in agglomerative hierarchical clustering. We use it to construct the greedy multi-fragment tour for Euclidean TSP in O(n log n) time in any fixed dimension and for Steiner TSP in planar graphs in O(n sqrt(n)log n) time; we compute motorcycle graphs, a central step in straight skeleton algorithms, in O(n^(4/3+epsilon)) time for any epsilon>0.

Nil Mamano, Alon Efrat, David Eppstein, Daniel Frishberg, Michael T. Goodrich, Stephen Kobourov, Pedro Matias, and Valentin Polishchuk. New Applications of Nearest-Neighbor Chains: Euclidean TSP and Motorcycle Graphs. In 30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 149, pp. 51:1-51:21, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{mamano_et_al:LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.51, author = {Mamano, Nil and Efrat, Alon and Eppstein, David and Frishberg, Daniel and Goodrich, Michael T. and Kobourov, Stephen and Matias, Pedro and Polishchuk, Valentin}, title = {{New Applications of Nearest-Neighbor Chains: Euclidean TSP and Motorcycle Graphs}}, booktitle = {30th International Symposium on Algorithms and Computation (ISAAC 2019)}, pages = {51:1--51:21}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-130-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {149}, editor = {Lu, Pinyan and Zhang, Guochuan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.51}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-115477}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ISAAC.2019.51}, annote = {Keywords: Nearest-neighbors, Nearest-neighbor chain, motorcycle graph, straight skeleton, multi-fragment algorithm, Euclidean TSP, Steiner TSP} }