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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are ubiquitous in theoretical computer science. We study the problem of Strong-CSP s, i.e. instances where a large induced sub-instance has a satisfying assignment. More formally, given a CSP instance 𝒢(V, E, [k], {Π_{ij}}_{(i,j) ∈ E}) consisting of a set of vertices V, a set of edges E, alphabet [k], a constraint Π_{ij} ⊂ [k] × [k] for each (i,j) ∈ E, the goal of this problem is to compute the largest subset S ⊆ V such that the instance induced on S has an assignment that satisfies all the constraints.
In this paper, we study approximation algorithms for UniqueGames and related problems under the Strong-CSP framework when the underlying constraint graph satisfies mild expansion properties. In particular, we show that given a StrongUniqueGames instance whose optimal solution S^* is supported on a regular low threshold rank graph, there exists an algorithm that runs in time exponential in the threshold rank, and recovers a large satisfiable sub-instance whose size is independent on the label set size and maximum degree of the graph. Our algorithm combines the techniques of Barak-Raghavendra-Steurer (FOCS'11), Guruswami-Sinop (FOCS'11) with several new ideas and runs in time exponential in the threshold rank of the optimal set. A key component of our algorithm is a new threshold rank based spectral decomposition, which is used to compute a "large" induced subgraph of "small" threshold rank; our techniques build on the work of Oveis Gharan and Rezaei (SODA'17), and could be of independent interest.

Suprovat Ghoshal and Anand Louis. Approximating CSPs with Outliers. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 43:1-43:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ghoshal_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.43, author = {Ghoshal, Suprovat and Louis, Anand}, title = {{Approximating CSPs with Outliers}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {43:1--43:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.43}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171656}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.43}, annote = {Keywords: Constraint Satisfaction Problems, Strong Unique Games, Threshold Rank} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 245, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)

The p-biased Homogeneous r-Lin problem (Hom-r-Lin_p) is the following: given a homogeneous system of r-variable equations over m{F}₂, the goal is to find an assignment of relative weight p that satisfies the maximum number of equations. In a celebrated work, Håstad (JACM 2001) showed that the unconstrained variant of this i.e., Max-3-Lin, is hard to approximate beyond a factor of 1/2. This is also tight due to the naive random guessing algorithm which sets every variable uniformly from {0,1}. Subsequently, Holmerin and Khot (STOC 2004) showed that the same holds for the balanced Hom-r-Lin problem as well. In this work, we explore the approximability of the Hom-r-Lin_p problem beyond the balanced setting (i.e., p ≠ 1/2), and investigate whether the (p-biased) random guessing algorithm is optimal for every p. Our results include the following:
- The Hom-r-Lin_p problem has no efficient 1/2 + 1/2 (1 - 2p)^{r-2} + ε-approximation algorithm for every p if r is even, and for p ∈ (0,1/2] if r is odd, unless NP ⊂ ∪_{ε>0}DTIME(2^{n^ε}).
- For any r and any p, there exists an efficient 1/2 (1 - e^{-2})-approximation algorithm for Hom-r-Lin_p. We show that this is also tight for odd values of r (up to o_r(1)-additive factors) assuming the Unique Games Conjecture. Our results imply that when r is even, then for large values of r, random guessing is near optimal for every p. On the other hand, when r is odd, our results illustrate an interesting contrast between the regimes p ∈ (0,1/2) (where random guessing is near optimal) and p → 1 (where random guessing is far from optimal). A key technical contribution of our work is a generalization of Håstad’s 3-query dictatorship test to the p-biased setting.

Suprovat Ghoshal. The Biased Homogeneous r-Lin Problem. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 245, pp. 47:1-47:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{ghoshal:LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.47, author = {Ghoshal, Suprovat}, title = {{The Biased Homogeneous r-Lin Problem}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2022)}, pages = {47:1--47:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-249-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {245}, editor = {Chakrabarti, Amit and Swamy, Chaitanya}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-171695}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX/RANDOM.2022.47}, annote = {Keywords: Biased Approximation Resistance, Constraint Satisfaction Problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

A code is called a q-query locally decodable code (LDC) if there is a randomized decoding algorithm that, given an index i and a received word w close to an encoding of a message x, outputs x_i by querying only at most q coordinates of w. Understanding the tradeoffs between the dimension, length and query complexity of LDCs is a fascinating and unresolved research challenge. In particular, for 3-query binary LDC’s of dimension k and length n, the best known bounds are: 2^{k^o(1)} ≥ n ≥ Ω ̃(k²).
In this work, we take a second look at binary 3-query LDCs. We investigate a class of 3-uniform hypergraphs that are equivalent to strong binary 3-query LDCs. We prove an upper bound on the number of edges in these hypergraphs, reproducing the known lower bound of Ω ̃(k²) for the length of strong 3-query LDCs. In contrast to previous work, our techniques are purely combinatorial and do not rely on a direct reduction to 2-query LDCs, opening up a potentially different approach to analyzing 3-query LDCs.

Arnab Bhattacharyya, L. Sunil Chandran, and Suprovat Ghoshal. Combinatorial Lower Bounds for 3-Query LDCs. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 85:1-85:8, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{bhattacharyya_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.85, author = {Bhattacharyya, Arnab and Chandran, L. Sunil and Ghoshal, Suprovat}, title = {{Combinatorial Lower Bounds for 3-Query LDCs}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {85:1--85:8}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.85}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117704}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.85}, annote = {Keywords: Coding theory, Graph theory, Hypergraphs} }

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APPROX

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 145, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)

Graph coloring problems are a central topic of study in the theory of algorithms. We study the problem of partially coloring partially colorable graphs. For alpha <= 1 and k in Z^+, we say that a graph G=(V,E) is alpha-partially k-colorable, if there exists a subset S subset V of cardinality |S| >= alpha |V| such that the graph induced on S is k-colorable. Partial k-colorability is a more robust structural property of a graph than k-colorability. For graphs that arise in practice, partial k-colorability might be a better notion to use than k-colorability, since data arising in practice often contains various forms of noise.
We give a polynomial time algorithm that takes as input a (1 - epsilon)-partially 3-colorable graph G and a constant gamma in [epsilon, 1/10], and colors a (1 - epsilon/gamma) fraction of the vertices using O~(n^{0.25 + O(gamma^{1/2})}) colors. We also study natural semi-random families of instances of partially 3-colorable graphs and partially 2-colorable graphs, and give stronger bi-criteria approximation guarantees for these family of instances.

Suprovat Ghoshal, Anand Louis, and Rahul Raychaudhury. Approximation Algorithms for Partially Colorable Graphs. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 145, pp. 28:1-28:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{ghoshal_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.28, author = {Ghoshal, Suprovat and Louis, Anand and Raychaudhury, Rahul}, title = {{Approximation Algorithms for Partially Colorable Graphs}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2019)}, pages = {28:1--28:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-125-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {145}, editor = {Achlioptas, Dimitris and V\'{e}gh, L\'{a}szl\'{o} A.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-112438}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2019.28}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Vertex Coloring, Semi-random Models} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 107, 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)

The k-Even Set problem is a parameterized variant of the Minimum Distance Problem of linear codes over F_2, which can be stated as follows: given a generator matrix A and an integer k, determine whether the code generated by A has distance at most k. Here, k is the parameter of the problem. The question of whether k-Even Set is fixed parameter tractable (FPT) has been repeatedly raised in literature and has earned its place in Downey and Fellows' book (2013) as one of the "most infamous" open problems in the field of Parameterized Complexity.
In this work, we show that k-Even Set does not admit FPT algorithms under the (randomized) Gap Exponential Time Hypothesis (Gap-ETH) [Dinur'16, Manurangsi-Raghavendra'16]. In fact, our result rules out not only exact FPT algorithms, but also any constant factor FPT approximation algorithms for the problem. Furthermore, our result holds even under the following weaker assumption, which is also known as the Parameterized Inapproximability Hypothesis (PIH) [Lokshtanov et al.'17]: no (randomized) FPT algorithm can distinguish a satisfiable 2CSP instance from one which is only 0.99-satisfiable (where the parameter is the number of variables).
We also consider the parameterized k-Shortest Vector Problem (SVP), in which we are given a lattice whose basis vectors are integral and an integer k, and the goal is to determine whether the norm of the shortest vector (in the l_p norm for some fixed p) is at most k. Similar to k-Even Set, this problem is also a long-standing open problem in the field of Parameterized Complexity. We show that, for any p > 1, k-SVP is hard to approximate (in FPT time) to some constant factor, assuming PIH. Furthermore, for the case of p = 2, the inapproximability factor can be amplified to any constant.

Arnab Bhattacharyya, Suprovat Ghoshal, Karthik C. S., and Pasin Manurangsi. Parameterized Intractability of Even Set and Shortest Vector Problem from Gap-ETH. In 45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 107, pp. 17:1-17:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{bhattacharyya_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.17, author = {Bhattacharyya, Arnab and Ghoshal, Suprovat and C. S., Karthik and Manurangsi, Pasin}, title = {{Parameterized Intractability of Even Set and Shortest Vector Problem from Gap-ETH}}, booktitle = {45th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2018)}, pages = {17:1--17:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-076-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {107}, editor = {Chatzigiannakis, Ioannis and Kaklamanis, Christos and Marx, D\'{a}niel and Sannella, Donald}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.17}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-90214}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2018.17}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Inapproximability, Even Set, Minimum Distance Problem, Shortest Vector Problem, Gap-ETH} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 57, 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)

This work investigates the hardness of computing sparse solutions to systems of linear equations over F_2. Consider the k-EventSet problem: given a homogeneous system of linear equations over $\F_2$ on $n$ variables, decide if there exists a nonzero solution of Hamming weight at most k (i.e. a k-sparse solution). While there is a simple O(n^{k/2})-time algorithm for it, establishing fixed parameter intractability for k-EventSet has been a notorious open problem. Towards this goal, we show that unless \kclq can be solved in n^{o(k)} time, k-EventSet has no polynomial time algorithm when k = omega(log^2(n)).
Our work also shows that the non-homogeneous generalization of the problem - which we call k-VectorSum - is W[1]-hard on instances where the number of equations is O(k*log(n)), improving on previous reductions which produced Omega(n) equations. We use the hardness of k-VectorSum as a starting point to prove the result for k-EventSet, and additionally strengthen the former to show the hardness of approximately learning k-juntas. In particular, we prove that given a system of O(exp(O(k))*log(n)) linear equations, it is W[1]-hard to decide if there is a k-sparse linear form satisfying all the equations or any function on at most k-variables (a k-junta) satisfies at most (1/2 + epsilon)-fraction of the equations, for any constant epsilon > 0. In the setting of computational learning, this shows hardness of approximate non-proper learning of k-parities.
In a similar vein, we use the hardness of k-EventSet to show that that for any constant d, unless k-Clique can be solved in n^{o(k)} time, there is no poly(m,n)*2^{o(sqrt{k})} time algorithm to decide whether a given set of $m$ points in F_2^n satisfies: (i) there exists a non-trivial k-sparse homogeneous linear form evaluating to 0 on all the points, or (ii) any non-trivial degree d polynomial P supported on at most k variables evaluates to zero on approx Pr_{F_2^n}[P({z}) = 0] fraction of the points i.e., P is fooled by the set of points.
Lastly, we study the approximation in the sparsity of the solution. Let the Gap-k-VectorSum problem be: given an instance of k-VectorSum of size n, decide if there exist a k-sparse solution, or every solution is of sparsity at least k' = (1+delta_0)k. Assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis, we show that for some constants c_0, delta_0 > 0 there is no poly(n) time algorithm for Gap-k-VectorSum when k = omega((log(log( n)))^{c_0}).

Arnab Bhattacharyya, Ameet Gadekar, Suprovat Ghoshal, and Rishi Saket. On the Hardness of Learning Sparse Parities. In 24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 57, pp. 11:1-11:17, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{bhattacharyya_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2016.11, author = {Bhattacharyya, Arnab and Gadekar, Ameet and Ghoshal, Suprovat and Saket, Rishi}, title = {{On the Hardness of Learning Sparse Parities}}, booktitle = {24th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2016)}, pages = {11:1--11:17}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-015-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {57}, editor = {Sankowski, Piotr and Zaroliagis, Christos}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.11}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-63628}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2016.11}, annote = {Keywords: Fixed Parameter Tractable, Juntas, Minimum Distance of Code, Psuedorandom Generators} }

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