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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

We explicitly construct the first nontrivial extractors for degree d ≥ 2 polynomial sources over 𝔽₂. Our extractor requires min-entropy k ≥ n - (√{log n})/((log log n / d)^{d/2}). Previously, no constructions were known, even for min-entropy k ≥ n-1. A key ingredient in our construction is an input reduction lemma, which allows us to assume that any polynomial source with min-entropy k can be generated by O(k) uniformly random bits.
We also provide strong formal evidence that polynomial sources are unusually challenging to extract from, by showing that even our most powerful general purpose extractors cannot handle polynomial sources with min-entropy below k ≥ n-o(n). In more detail, we show that sumset extractors cannot even disperse from degree 2 polynomial sources with min-entropy k ≥ n-O(n/log log n). In fact, this impossibility result even holds for a more specialized family of sources that we introduce, called polynomial non-oblivious bit-fixing (NOBF) sources. Polynomial NOBF sources are a natural new family of algebraic sources that lie at the intersection of polynomial and variety sources, and thus our impossibility result applies to both of these classical settings. This is especially surprising, since we do have variety extractors that slightly beat this barrier - implying that sumset extractors are not a panacea in the world of seedless extraction.

Eshan Chattopadhyay, Jesse Goodman, and Mohit Gurumukhani. Extractors for Polynomial Sources over 𝔽₂. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 28:1-28:24, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{chattopadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.28, author = {Chattopadhyay, Eshan and Goodman, Jesse and Gurumukhani, Mohit}, title = {{Extractors for Polynomial Sources over \mathbb{F}₂}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {28:1--28:24}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.28}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-195569}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.28}, annote = {Keywords: Extractors, low-degree polynomials, varieties, sumset extractors} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 229, 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)

We continue a line of work on extracting random bits from weak sources that are generated by simple processes. We focus on the model of locally samplable sources, where each bit in the source depends on a small number of (hidden) uniformly random input bits. Also known as local sources, this model was introduced by De and Watson (TOCT 2012) and Viola (SICOMP 2014), and is closely related to sources generated by AC⁰ circuits and bounded-width branching programs. In particular, extractors for local sources also work for sources generated by these classical computational models.
Despite being introduced a decade ago, little progress has been made on improving the entropy requirement for extracting from local sources. The current best explicit extractors require entropy n^{1/2}, and follow via a reduction to affine extractors. To start, we prove a barrier showing that one cannot hope to improve this entropy requirement via a black-box reduction of this form. In particular, new techniques are needed.
In our main result, we seek to answer whether low-degree polynomials (over 𝔽₂) hold potential for breaking this barrier. We answer this question in the positive, and fully characterize the power of low-degree polynomials as extractors for local sources. More precisely, we show that a random degree r polynomial is a low-error extractor for n-bit local sources with min-entropy Ω(r(nlog n)^{1/r}), and we show that this is tight.
Our result leverages several new ingredients, which may be of independent interest. Our existential result relies on a new reduction from local sources to a more structured family, known as local non-oblivious bit-fixing sources. To show its tightness, we prove a "local version" of a structural result by Cohen and Tal (RANDOM 2015), which relies on a new "low-weight" Chevalley-Warning theorem.

Omar Alrabiah, Eshan Chattopadhyay, Jesse Goodman, Xin Li, and João Ribeiro. Low-Degree Polynomials Extract From Local Sources. In 49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 229, pp. 10:1-10:20, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{alrabiah_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.10, author = {Alrabiah, Omar and Chattopadhyay, Eshan and Goodman, Jesse and Li, Xin and Ribeiro, Jo\~{a}o}, title = {{Low-Degree Polynomials Extract From Local Sources}}, booktitle = {49th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2022)}, pages = {10:1--10:20}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-235-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {229}, editor = {Boja\'{n}czyk, Miko{\l}aj and Merelli, Emanuela and Woodruff, David P.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-163519}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2022.10}, annote = {Keywords: Randomness extractors, local sources, samplable sources, AC⁰ circuits, branching programs, low-degree polynomials, Chevalley-Warning} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 215, 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)

Recently, there has been exciting progress in understanding the complexity of distributions. Here, the goal is to quantify the resources required to generate (or sample) a distribution. Proving lower bounds in this new setting is more challenging than in the classical setting, and has yielded interesting new techniques and surprising applications. In this work, we initiate a study of the complexity of sampling with limited memory, and obtain the first nontrivial sampling lower bounds against oblivious read-once branching programs (ROBPs).
In our first main result, we show that any distribution sampled by an ROBP of width 2^{Ω(n)} has statistical distance 1-2^{-Ω(n)} from any distribution that is uniform over a good code. More generally, we obtain sampling lower bounds for any list decodable code, which are nearly tight. Previously, such a result was only known for sampling in AC⁰ (Lovett and Viola, CCC'11; Beck, Impagliazzo and Lovett, FOCS'12). As an application of our result, a known connection implies new data structure lower bounds for storing codewords.
In our second main result, we prove a direct product theorem for sampling with ROBPs. Previously, no direct product theorems were known for the task of sampling, for any computational model. A key ingredient in our proof is a simple new lemma about amplifying statistical distance between sequences of somewhat-dependent random variables. Using this lemma, we also obtain a simple new proof of a known lower bound for sampling disjoint sets using two-party communication protocols (Göös and Watson, RANDOM'19).

Eshan Chattopadhyay, Jesse Goodman, and David Zuckerman. The Space Complexity of Sampling. In 13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 215, pp. 40:1-40:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{chattopadhyay_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.40, author = {Chattopadhyay, Eshan and Goodman, Jesse and Zuckerman, David}, title = {{The Space Complexity of Sampling}}, booktitle = {13th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2022)}, pages = {40:1--40:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-217-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {215}, editor = {Braverman, Mark}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.40}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-156366}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2022.40}, annote = {Keywords: Complexity of distributions, complexity of sampling, extractors, list decodable codes, lower bounds, read-once branching programs, small-space computation} }

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