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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 272, 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)

In 1992 Biró, Hujter and Tuza introduced, for every fixed connected graph H, the class of H-graphs, defined as the intersection graphs of connected subgraphs of some subdivision of H. Such classes of graphs are related to many known graph classes: for example, K₂-graphs coincide with interval graphs, K₃-graphs with circular-arc graphs, the union of T-graphs, where T ranges over all trees, coincides with chordal graphs. Recently, quite a lot of research has been devoted to understanding the tractability border for various computational problems, such as recognition or isomorphism testing, in classes of H-graphs for different graphs H.
In this work we undertake this research topic, focusing on the recognition problem. Chaplick, Töpfer, Voborník, and Zeman showed an XP-algorithm testing whether a given graph is a T-graph, where the parameter is the size of the tree T. In particular, for every fixed tree T the recognition of T-graphs can be solved in polynomial time. Tucker showed a polynomial time algorithm recognizing K₃-graphs (circular-arc graphs). On the other hand, Chaplick et al. showed also that for every fixed graph H containing two distinct cycles sharing an edge, the recognition of H-graphs is NP-hard.
The main two results of this work narrow the gap between the NP-hard and 𝖯 cases of H-graph recognition. First, we show that the recognition of H-graphs is NP-hard when H contains two distinct cycles. On the other hand, we show a polynomial-time algorithm recognizing L-graphs, where L is a graph containing a cycle and an edge attached to it (which we call lollipop graphs). Our work leaves open the recognition problems of M-graphs for every unicyclic graph M different from a cycle and a lollipop.

Deniz Ağaoğlu Çağırıcı, Onur Çağırıcı, Jan Derbisz, Tim A. Hartmann, Petr Hliněný, Jan Kratochvíl, Tomasz Krawczyk, and Peter Zeman. Recognizing H-Graphs - Beyond Circular-Arc Graphs. In 48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 272, pp. 8:1-8:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{agaoglucagirici_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.8, author = {A\u{g}ao\u{g}lu \c{C}a\u{g}{\i}r{\i}c{\i}, Deniz and \c{C}a\u{g}{\i}r{\i}c{\i}, Onur and Derbisz, Jan and Hartmann, Tim A. and Hlin\v{e}n\'{y}, Petr and Kratochv{\'\i}l, Jan and Krawczyk, Tomasz and Zeman, Peter}, title = {{Recognizing H-Graphs - Beyond Circular-Arc Graphs}}, booktitle = {48th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2023)}, pages = {8:1--8:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-292-1}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {272}, editor = {Leroux, J\'{e}r\^{o}me and Lombardy, Sylvain and Peleg, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-185420}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2023.8}, annote = {Keywords: H-graphs, Intersection Graphs, Helly Property} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 241, 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)

We continue the study of δ-dispersion, a continuous facility location problem on a graph where all edges have unit length and where the facilities may also be positioned in the interior of the edges. The goal is to position as many facilities as possible subject to the condition that every two facilities have distance at least δ from each other.
Our main technical contribution is an efficient procedure to "round-up" distance δ. It transforms a δ-dispersed set S into a δ^⋆-dispersed set S^⋆ of same size where distance δ^⋆ is a potentially slightly larger rational a/b with a numerator a upper bounded by the longest (not-induced) path in the input graph.
Based on this rounding procedure and connections to the distance-d independent set problem we derive a number of algorithmic results. When parameterized by treewidth, the problem is in XP. When parameterized by treedepth the problem is FPT and has a matching lower bound on its time complexity under ETH. Moreover, we can also settle the parameterized complexity with the solution size as parameter using our rounding technique: δ-Dispersion is FPT for every δ ≤ 2 and W[1]-hard for every δ > 2.
Further, we show that δ-dispersion is NP-complete for every fixed irrational distance δ, which was left open in a previous work.

Tim A. Hartmann and Stefan Lendl. Dispersing Obnoxious Facilities on Graphs by Rounding Distances. In 47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 241, pp. 55:1-55:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2022)

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@InProceedings{hartmann_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.55, author = {Hartmann, Tim A. and Lendl, Stefan}, title = {{Dispersing Obnoxious Facilities on Graphs by Rounding Distances}}, booktitle = {47th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2022)}, pages = {55:1--55:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-256-3}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2022}, volume = {241}, editor = {Szeider, Stefan and Ganian, Robert and Silva, Alexandra}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.55}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-168536}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2022.55}, annote = {Keywords: facility location, parameterized complexity, packing} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 214, 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)

We investigate the so-called recoverable robust assignment problem on complete bipartite graphs, a mainstream problem in robust optimization: For two given linear cost functions c₁ and c₂ on the edges and a given integer k, the goal is to find two perfect matchings M₁ and M₂ that minimize the objective value c₁(M₁)+c₂(M₂), subject to the constraint that M₁ and M₂ have at least k edges in common.
We derive a variety of results on this problem. First, we show that the problem is W[1]-hard with respect to parameter k, and also with respect to the complementary parameter k' = n/2-k. This hardness result holds even in the highly restricted special case where both cost functions c₁ and c₂ only take the values 0 and 1. (On the other hand, containment of the problem in XP is straightforward to see.) Next, as a positive result we construct a polynomial time algorithm for the special case where one cost function is Monge, whereas the other one is Anti-Monge. Finally, we study the variant where matching M₁ is frozen, and where the optimization goal is to compute the best corresponding matching M₂. This problem variant is known to be contained in the randomized parallel complexity class RNC², and we show that it is at least as hard as the infamous problem Exact Red-Blue Matching in Bipartite Graphs whose computational complexity is a long-standing open problem.

Dennis Fischer, Tim A. Hartmann, Stefan Lendl, and Gerhard J. Woeginger. An Investigation of the Recoverable Robust Assignment Problem. In 16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 214, pp. 19:1-19:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2021)

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@InProceedings{fischer_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.19, author = {Fischer, Dennis and Hartmann, Tim A. and Lendl, Stefan and Woeginger, Gerhard J.}, title = {{An Investigation of the Recoverable Robust Assignment Problem}}, booktitle = {16th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2021)}, pages = {19:1--19:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-216-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2021}, volume = {214}, editor = {Golovach, Petr A. and Zehavi, Meirav}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.19}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-154025}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2021.19}, annote = {Keywords: assignment problem, matchings, exact matching, robust optimization, fixed paramter tractablity, RNC} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 180, 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)

We investigate the parameterized complexity of the recognition problem for the proper H-graphs. The H-graphs are the intersection graphs of connected subgraphs of a subdivision of a multigraph H, and the properness means that the containment relationship between the representations of the vertices is forbidden. The class of H-graphs was introduced as a natural (parameterized) generalization of interval and circular-arc graphs by Biró, Hujter, and Tuza in 1992, and the proper H-graphs were introduced by Chaplick et al. in WADS 2019 as a generalization of proper interval and circular-arc graphs. For these graph classes, H may be seen as a structural parameter reflecting the distance of a graph to a (proper) interval graph, and as such gained attention as a structural parameter in the design of efficient algorithms. We show the following results.
- For a tree T with t nodes, it can be decided in 2^{𝒪(t² log t)} ⋅ n³ time, whether an n-vertex graph G is a proper T-graph. For yes-instances, our algorithm outputs a proper T-representation. This proves that the recognition problem for proper H-graphs, where H required to be a tree, is fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the size of T. Previously only NP-completeness was known.
- Contrasting to the first result, we prove that if H is not constrained to be a tree, then the recognition problem becomes much harder. Namely, we show that there is a multigraph H with 4 vertices and 5 edges such that it is NP-complete to decide whether G is a proper H-graph.

Steven Chaplick, Petr A. Golovach, Tim A. Hartmann, and Dušan Knop. Recognizing Proper Tree-Graphs. In 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 180, pp. 8:1-8:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{chaplick_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.8, author = {Chaplick, Steven and Golovach, Petr A. and Hartmann, Tim A. and Knop, Du\v{s}an}, title = {{Recognizing Proper Tree-Graphs}}, booktitle = {15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)}, pages = {8:1--8:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-172-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {180}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Pilipczuk, Marcin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.8}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133118}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.8}, annote = {Keywords: intersection graphs, H-graphs, recognition, fixed-parameter tractability} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 148, 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)

We introduce and study the complexity of Path Packing. Given a graph G and a list of paths, the task is to embed the paths edge-disjoint in G. This generalizes the well known Hamiltonian-Path problem.
Since Hamiltonian Path is efficiently solvable for graphs of small treewidth, we study how this result translates to the much more general Path Packing. On the positive side, we give an FPT-algorithm on trees for the number of paths as parameter. Further, we give an XP-algorithm with the combined parameters maximal degree, number of connected components and number of nodes of degree at least three. Surprisingly the latter is an almost tight result by runtime and parameterization. We show an ETH lower bound almost matching our runtime. Moreover, if two of the three values are constant and one is unbounded the problem becomes NP-hard.
Further, we study restrictions to the given list of paths. On the positive side, we present an FPT-algorithm parameterized by the sum of the lengths of the paths. Packing paths of length two is polynomial time solvable, while packing paths of length three is NP-hard. Finally, even the spacial case Exact Path Packing where the paths have to cover every edge in G exactly once is already NP-hard for two paths on 4-regular graphs.

Jan Dreier, Janosch Fuchs, Tim A. Hartmann, Philipp Kuinke, Peter Rossmanith, Bjoern Tauer, and Hung-Lung Wang. The Complexity of Packing Edge-Disjoint Paths. In 14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 148, pp. 10:1-10:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{dreier_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.10, author = {Dreier, Jan and Fuchs, Janosch and Hartmann, Tim A. and Kuinke, Philipp and Rossmanith, Peter and Tauer, Bjoern and Wang, Hung-Lung}, title = {{The Complexity of Packing Edge-Disjoint Paths}}, booktitle = {14th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2019)}, pages = {10:1--10:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-129-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {148}, editor = {Jansen, Bart M. P. and Telle, Jan Arne}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.10}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-114710}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2019.10}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity, embedding, packing, covering, Hamiltonian path, unary binpacking, path-perfect graphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 126, 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)

We study a continuous facility location problem on a graph where all edges have unit length and where the facilities may also be positioned in the interior of the edges. The goal is to position as many facilities as possible subject to the condition that any two facilities have at least distance delta from each other.
We investigate the complexity of this problem in terms of the rational parameter delta. The problem is polynomially solvable, if the numerator of delta is 1 or 2, while all other cases turn out to be NP-hard.

Alexander Grigoriev, Tim A. Hartmann, Stefan Lendl, and Gerhard J. Woeginger. Dispersing Obnoxious Facilities on a Graph. In 36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 126, pp. 33:1-33:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{grigoriev_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2019.33, author = {Grigoriev, Alexander and Hartmann, Tim A. and Lendl, Stefan and Woeginger, Gerhard J.}, title = {{Dispersing Obnoxious Facilities on a Graph}}, booktitle = {36th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2019)}, pages = {33:1--33:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-100-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {126}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Paul, Christophe}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops-dev.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.33}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102729}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2019.33}, annote = {Keywords: algorithms, complexity, optimization, graph theory, facility location} }

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