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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 287, 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)

We introduce a new framework for the analysis of preprocessing routines for parameterized counting problems. Existing frameworks that encapsulate parameterized counting problems permit the usage of exponential (rather than polynomial) time either explicitly or by implicitly reducing the counting problems to enumeration problems. Thus, our framework is the only one in the spirit of classic kernelization (as well as lossy kernelization). Specifically, we define a compression of a counting problem P into a counting problem Q as a pair of polynomial-time procedures: reduce and lift. Given an instance of P, reduce outputs an instance of Q whose size is bounded by a function f of the parameter, and given the number of solutions to the instance of Q, lift outputs the number of solutions to the instance of P. When P = Q, compression is termed kernelization, and when f is polynomial, compression is termed polynomial compression. Our technical (and other conceptual) contributions can be classified into two categories:
Upper Bounds. We prove two theorems: (i) The #Vertex Cover problem parameterized by solution size admits a polynomial kernel; (ii) Every problem in the class of #Planar F-Deletion problems parameterized by solution size admits a polynomial compression.
Lower Bounds. We introduce two new concepts of cross-compositions: EXACT-cross-composition and SUM-cross-composition. We prove that if a #P-hard counting problem P EXACT-cross-composes into a parameterized counting problem Q, then Q does not admit a polynomial compression unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses. We conjecture that the same statement holds for SUM-cross-compositions. Then, we prove that: (i) #Min (s,t)-Cut parameterized by treewidth does not admit a polynomial compression unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses; (ii) #Min (s,t)-Cut parameterized by minimum cut size, #Odd Cycle Transversal parameterized by solution size, and #Vertex Cover parameterized by solution size minus maximum matching size, do not admit polynomial compressions unless our conjecture is false.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Kernelization of Counting Problems. In 15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 287, pp. 77:1-77:23, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2024)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.77, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Kernelization of Counting Problems}}, booktitle = {15th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2024)}, pages = {77:1--77:23}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-309-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2024}, volume = {287}, editor = {Guruswami, Venkatesan}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.77}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-196059}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2024.77}, annote = {Keywords: Kernelization, Counting Problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 274, 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)

In the Vertex Connectivity Survivable Network Design (VC-SNDP) problem, the input is a graph G and a function d: V(G) × V(G) → ℕ that encodes the vertex-connectivity demands between pairs of vertices. The objective is to find the smallest subgraph H of G that satisfies all these demands. It is a well-studied NP-complete problem that generalizes several network design problems. We consider the case of uniform demands, where for every vertex pair (u,v) the connectivity demand d(u,v) is a fixed integer κ. It is an important problem with wide applications.
We study this problem in the realm of Parameterized Complexity. In this setting, in addition to G and d we are given an integer 𝓁 as the parameter and the objective is to determine if we can remove at least 𝓁 edges from G without violating any connectivity constraints. This was posed as an open problem by Bang-Jansen et.al. [SODA 2018], who studied the edge-connectivity variant of the problem under the same settings. Using a powerful classification result of Lokshtanov et al. [ICALP 2018], Gutin et al. [JCSS 2019] recently showed that this problem admits a (non-uniform) FPT algorithm where the running time was unspecified. Further they also gave an (uniform) FPT algorithm for the case of κ = 2. In this paper we present a (uniform) FPT algorithm any κ that runs in time 2^{O(κ² 𝓁⁴ log 𝓁)}⋅ |V(G)|^O(1).
Our algorithm is built upon new insights on vertex connectivity in graphs. Our main conceptual contribution is a novel graph decomposition called the Wheel decomposition. Informally, it is a partition of the edge set of a graph G, E(G) = X₁ ∪ X₂ … ∪ X_r, with the parts arranged in a cyclic order, such that each vertex v ∈ V(G) either has edges in at most two consecutive parts, or has edges in every part of this partition. The first kind of vertices can be thought of as the rim of the wheel, while the second kind form the hub. Additionally, the vertex cuts induced by these edge-sets in G have highly symmetric properties. Our main technical result, informally speaking, establishes that "nearly edge-minimal’’ κ-vertex connected graphs admit a wheel decomposition - a fact that can be exploited for designing algorithms. We believe that this decomposition is of independent interest and it could be a useful tool in resolving other open problems.

Jørgen Bang-Jensen, Kristine Vitting Klinkby, Pranabendu Misra, and Saket Saurabh. A Parameterized Algorithm for Vertex Connectivity Survivable Network Design Problem with Uniform Demands. In 31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 274, pp. 13:1-13:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{bangjensen_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2023.13, author = {Bang-Jensen, J{\o}rgen and Klinkby, Kristine Vitting and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{A Parameterized Algorithm for Vertex Connectivity Survivable Network Design Problem with Uniform Demands}}, booktitle = {31st Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2023)}, pages = {13:1--13:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-295-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {274}, editor = {G{\o}rtz, Inge Li and Farach-Colton, Martin and Puglisi, Simon J. and Herman, Grzegorz}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.13}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-186663}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2023.13}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Vertex Connectivity, Network Design} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 180, 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)

We initiate the parameterized complexity study of minimum t-spanner problems on directed graphs. For a positive integer t, a multiplicative t-spanner of a (directed) graph G is a spanning subgraph H such that the distance between any two vertices in H is at most t times the distance between these vertices in G, that is, H keeps the distances in G up to the distortion (or stretch) factor t. An additive t-spanner is defined as a spanning subgraph that keeps the distances up to the additive distortion parameter t, that is, the distances in H and G differ by at most t. The task of Directed Multiplicative Spanner is, given a directed graph G with m arcs and positive integers t and k, decide whether G has a multiplicative t-spanner with at most m-k arcs. Similarly, Directed Additive Spanner asks whether G has an additive t-spanner with at most m-k arcs. We show that
- Directed Multiplicative Spanner admits a polynomial kernel of size 𝒪(k⁴t⁵) and can be solved in randomized (4t)^k⋅ n^𝒪(1) time,
- Directed Additive Spanner is W[1]-hard when parameterized by k even if t = 1 and the input graphs are restricted to be directed acyclic graphs. The latter claim contrasts with the recent result of Kobayashi from STACS 2020 that the problem for undirected graphs is FPT when parameterized by t and k.

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr A. Golovach, William Lochet, Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, and Roohani Sharma. Parameterized Complexity of Directed Spanner Problems. In 15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 180, pp. 12:1-12:11, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.12, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr A. and Lochet, William and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani}, title = {{Parameterized Complexity of Directed Spanner Problems}}, booktitle = {15th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2020)}, pages = {12:1--12:11}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-172-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {180}, editor = {Cao, Yixin and Pilipczuk, Marcin}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.12}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-133156}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2020.12}, annote = {Keywords: Graph spanners, directed graphs, parameterized complexity, kernelization} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 173, 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)

The incidence matrix of a graph is a fundamental object naturally appearing in many applications, involving graphs such as social networks, communication networks, or transportation networks. Often, the data collected about the incidence relations can have some slight noise. In this paper, we initiate the study of the computational complexity of recovering incidence matrices of graphs from a binary matrix: given a binary matrix M which can be written as the superposition of two binary matrices L and S, where S is the incidence matrix of a graph from a specified graph class, and L is a matrix (i) of small rank or, (ii) of small (Hamming) weight. Further, identify all those graphs whose incidence matrices form part of such a superposition. Here, L represents the noise in the input matrix M. Another motivation for this problem comes from the Matroid Minors project of Geelen, Gerards and Whittle, where perturbed graphic and co-graphic matroids play a prominent role. There, it is expected that a perturbed binary matroid (or its dual) is presented as L+S where L is a low rank matrix and S is the incidence matrix of a graph. Here, we address the complexity of constructing such a decomposition.
When L is of small rank, we show that the problem is NP-complete, but it can be decided in time (mn)^O(r), where m,n are dimensions of M and r is an upper-bound on the rank of L. When L is of small weight, then the problem is solvable in polynomial time (mn)^O(1). Furthermore, in many applications it is desirable to have the list of all possible solutions for further analysis. We show that our algorithms naturally extend to enumeration algorithms for the above two problems with delay (mn)^O(r) and (mn)^O(1), respectively, between consecutive outputs.

Fedor V. Fomin, Petr Golovach, Pranabendu Misra, and M. S. Ramanujan. On the Complexity of Recovering Incidence Matrices. In 28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 173, pp. 50:1-50:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{fomin_et_al:LIPIcs.ESA.2020.50, author = {Fomin, Fedor V. and Golovach, Petr and Misra, Pranabendu and Ramanujan, M. S.}, title = {{On the Complexity of Recovering Incidence Matrices}}, booktitle = {28th Annual European Symposium on Algorithms (ESA 2020)}, pages = {50:1--50:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-162-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {173}, editor = {Grandoni, Fabrizio and Herman, Grzegorz and Sanders, Peter}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.50}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-129164}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ESA.2020.50}, annote = {Keywords: Graph Incidence Matrix, Matrix Recovery, Enumeration Algorithm} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 170, 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)

In this paper we study two classical cut problems, namely Multicut and Multiway Cut on chordal graphs and split graphs. In the Multicut problem, the input is a graph G, a collection of 𝓁 vertex pairs (s_i, t_i), i ∈ [𝓁], and a positive integer k and the goal is to decide if there exists a vertex subset S ⊆ V(G)⧵ {s_i,t_i : i ∈ [𝓁]} of size at most k such that for every vertex pair (s_i,t_i), s_i and t_i are in two different connected components of G-S. In Unrestricted Multicut, the solution S can possibly pick the vertices in the vertex pairs {(s_i,t_i): i ∈ [𝓁]}. An important special case of the Multicut problem is the Multiway Cut problem, where instead of vertex pairs, we are given a set T of terminal vertices, and the goal is to separate every pair of distinct vertices in T× T. The fixed parameter tractability (FPT) of these problems was a long-standing open problem and has been resolved fairly recently. Multicut and Multiway Cut now admit algorithms with running times 2^{{𝒪}(k³)}n^{{𝒪}(1)} and 2^k n^{{𝒪}(1)}, respectively. However, the kernelization complexity of both these problems is not fully resolved: while Multicut cannot admit a polynomial kernel under reasonable complexity assumptions, it is a well known open problem to construct a polynomial kernel for Multiway Cut. Towards designing faster FPT algorithms and polynomial kernels for the above mentioned problems, we study them on chordal and split graphs. In particular we obtain the following results.
1) Multicut on chordal graphs admits a polynomial kernel with {𝒪}(k³ 𝓁⁷) vertices. Multiway Cut on chordal graphs admits a polynomial kernel with {𝒪}(k^{13}) vertices.
2) Multicut on chordal graphs can be solved in time min {𝒪(2^{k} ⋅ (k³+𝓁) ⋅ (n+m)), 2^{𝒪(𝓁 log k)} ⋅ (n+m) + 𝓁 (n+m)}. Hence Multicut on chordal graphs parameterized by the number of terminals is in XP.
3) Multicut on split graphs can be solved in time min {𝒪(1.2738^k + kn+𝓁(n+m), 𝒪(2^{𝓁} ⋅ 𝓁 ⋅ (n+m))}. Unrestricted Multicut on split graphs can be solved in time 𝒪(4^{𝓁}⋅ 𝓁 ⋅ (n+m)).

Pranabendu Misra, Fahad Panolan, Ashutosh Rai, Saket Saurabh, and Roohani Sharma. Quick Separation in Chordal and Split Graphs. In 45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 170, pp. 70:1-70:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{misra_et_al:LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.70, author = {Misra, Pranabendu and Panolan, Fahad and Rai, Ashutosh and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani}, title = {{Quick Separation in Chordal and Split Graphs}}, booktitle = {45th International Symposium on Mathematical Foundations of Computer Science (MFCS 2020)}, pages = {70:1--70:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-159-7}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {170}, editor = {Esparza, Javier and Kr\'{a}l', Daniel}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.70}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-127391}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2020.70}, annote = {Keywords: chordal graphs, multicut, multiway cut, FPT, kernel} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 168, 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)

In the Split Vertex Deletion (SVD) problem, the input is an n-vertex undirected graph G and a weight function w: V(G) → ℕ, and the objective is to find a minimum weight subset S of vertices such that G-S is a split graph (i.e., there is bipartition of V(G-S) = C ⊎ I such that C is a clique and I is an independent set in G-S). This problem is a special case of 5-Hitting Set and consequently, there is a simple factor 5-approximation algorithm for this. On the negative side, it is easy to show that the problem does not admit a polynomial time (2-δ)-approximation algorithm, for any fixed δ > 0, unless the Unique Games Conjecture fails.
We start by giving a simple quasipolynomial time (n^O(log n)) factor 2-approximation algorithm for SVD using the notion of clique-independent set separating collection. Thus, on the one hand SVD admits a factor 2-approximation in quasipolynomial time, and on the other hand this approximation factor cannot be improved assuming UGC. It naturally leads to the following question: Can SVD be 2-approximated in polynomial time? In this work we almost close this gap and prove that for any ε > 0, there is a n^O(log 1/(ε))-time 2(1+ε)-approximation algorithm.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Fahad Panolan, Geevarghese Philip, and Saket Saurabh. A (2 + ε)-Factor Approximation Algorithm for Split Vertex Deletion. In 47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 168, pp. 80:1-80:16, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.80, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Panolan, Fahad and Philip, Geevarghese and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{A (2 + \epsilon)-Factor Approximation Algorithm for Split Vertex Deletion}}, booktitle = {47th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2020)}, pages = {80:1--80:16}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-138-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {168}, editor = {Czumaj, Artur and Dawar, Anuj and Merelli, Emanuela}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.80}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-124879}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2020.80}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Graph Algorithms, Split Vertex Deletion} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 151, 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)

In the past decade, the design of fault tolerant data structures for networks has become a central topic of research. Particular attention has been given to the construction of a subgraph H of a given digraph D with as fewest arcs/vertices as possible such that, after the failure of any set F of at most k ≥ 1 arcs, testing whether D-F has a certain property P is equivalent to testing whether H-F has that property. Here, reachability (or, more generally, distance preservation) is the most basic requirement to maintain to ensure that the network functions properly. Given a vertex s ∈ V(D), Baswana et al. [STOC'16] presented a construction of H with O(2^kn) arcs in time O(2^{k}nm) where n=|V(D)| and m= |E(D)| such that for any vertex v ∈ V(D): if there exists a path from s to v in D-F, then there also exists a path from s to v in H-F. Additionally, they gave a tight matching lower bound. While the question of the improvement of the dependency on k arises for special classes of digraphs, an arguably more basic research direction concerns the dependency on n (for reachability between a pair of vertices s,t ∈ V(D)) - which are the largest classes of digraphs where the dependency on n can be made sublinear, logarithmic or even constant? Already for the simple classes of directed paths and tournaments, Ω(n) arcs are mandatory. Nevertheless, we prove that "almost acyclicity" suffices to eliminate the dependency on n entirely for a broad class of dense digraphs called bounded independence digraphs. Also, the dependence in k is only a polynomial factor for this class of digraphs. In fact, our sparsification procedure extends to preserve parity-based reachability. Additionally, it finds notable applications in Kernelization: we prove that the classic Directed Feedback Arc Set (DFAS) problem as well as Directed Edge Odd Cycle Transversal (DEOCT) (which, in sharp contrast to DFAS, is W[1]-hard on general digraphs) admit polynomial kernels on bounded independence digraphs. In fact, for any p ∈ N, we can design a polynomial kernel for the problem of hitting all cycles of length ℓ where (ℓ mod p = 1). As a complementary result, we prove that DEOCT is NP-hard on tournaments by establishing a combinatorial identity between the minimum size of a feedback arc set and the minimum size of an edge odd cycle transversal. In passing, we also improve upon the running time of the sub-exponential FPT algorithm for DFAS in digraphs of bounded independence number given by Misra et at. [FSTTCS 2018], and give the first sub-exponential FPT algorithm for DEOCT in digraphs of bounded independence number.

William Lochet, Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, Roohani Sharma, and Meirav Zehavi. Fault Tolerant Subgraphs with Applications in Kernelization. In 11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 151, pp. 47:1-47:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2020)

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@InProceedings{lochet_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.47, author = {Lochet, William and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Fault Tolerant Subgraphs with Applications in Kernelization}}, booktitle = {11th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2020)}, pages = {47:1--47:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-134-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2020}, volume = {151}, editor = {Vidick, Thomas}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.47}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-117326}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2020.47}, annote = {Keywords: sparsification, kernelization, fault tolerant subgraphs, directed feedback arc set, directed edge odd cycle transversal, bounded independence number digraphs} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 115, 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)

A generalization of classical cycle hitting problems, called conflict version of the problem, is defined as follows. An input is undirected graphs G and H on the same vertex set, and a positive integer k, and the objective is to decide whether there exists a vertex subset X subseteq V(G) such that it intersects all desired "cycles" (all cycles or all odd cycles or all even cycles) and X is an independent set in H. In this paper we study the conflict version of classical Feedback Vertex Set, and Odd Cycle Transversal problems, from the view point of kernelization complexity. In particular, we obtain the following results, when the conflict graph H belongs to the family of d-degenerate graphs.
1) CF-FVS admits a O(k^{O(d)}) kernel.
2) CF-OCT does not admit polynomial kernel (even when H is 1-degenerate), unless NP subseteq coNP/poly.
For our kernelization algorithm we exploit ideas developed for designing polynomial kernels for the classical Feedback Vertex Set problem, as well as, devise new reduction rules that exploit degeneracy crucially. Our main conceptual contribution here is the notion of "k-independence preserver". Informally, it is a set of "important" vertices for a given subset X subseteq V(H), that is enough to capture the independent set property in H. We show that for d-degenerate graph independence preserver of size k^{O(d)} exists, and can be used in designing polynomial kernel.

Akanksha Agrawal, Pallavi Jain, Lawqueen Kanesh, Pranabendu Misra, and Saket Saurabh. Exploring the Kernelization Borders for Hitting Cycles. In 13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 115, pp. 14:1-14:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2019)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.14, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Jain, Pallavi and Kanesh, Lawqueen and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Exploring the Kernelization Borders for Hitting Cycles}}, booktitle = {13th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2018)}, pages = {14:1--14:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-084-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2019}, volume = {115}, editor = {Paul, Christophe and Pilipczuk, Michal}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.14}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-102158}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2018.14}, annote = {Keywords: Parameterized Complexity, Kernelization, Conflict-free problems, Feedback Vertex Set, Even Cycle Transversal, Odd Cycle Transversal} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 122, 38th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2018)

Fradkin and Seymour [Journal of Combinatorial Graph Theory, Series B, 2015] defined the class of digraphs of bounded independence number as a generalization of the class of tournaments. They argued that the class of digraphs of bounded independence number is structured enough to be exploited algorithmically. In this paper, we further strengthen this belief by showing that several cut problems that admit sub-exponential time parameterized algorithms (a trait uncommon to parameterized algorithms) on tournaments, including Directed Feedback Arc Set, Directed Cutwidth and Optimal Linear Arrangement, also admit such algorithms on digraphs of bounded independence number. Towards this, we rely on the generic approach of Fomin and Pilipczuk [ESA, 2013], where to get the desired algorithms, it is enough to bound the number of k-cuts in digraphs of bounded independence number by a sub-exponential FPT function (Fomin and Pilipczuk bounded the number of k-cuts in transitive tournaments). Specifically, our main technical contribution is that the yes-instances of the problems above have a sub-exponential number of k-cuts. We prove this bound by using a combination of chromatic coding, an inductive argument and structural properties of the digraphs.

Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, Roohani Sharma, and Meirav Zehavi. Sub-Exponential Time Parameterized Algorithms for Graph Layout Problems on Digraphs with Bounded Independence Number. In 38th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 122, pp. 35:1-35:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{misra_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2018.35, author = {Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Sharma, Roohani and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Sub-Exponential Time Parameterized Algorithms for Graph Layout Problems on Digraphs with Bounded Independence Number}}, booktitle = {38th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2018)}, pages = {35:1--35:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-093-4}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {122}, editor = {Ganguly, Sumit and Pandya, Paritosh}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2018.35}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-99341}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2018.35}, annote = {Keywords: sub-exponential fixed-parameter tractable algorithms, directed feedback arc set, directed cutwidth, optimal linear arrangement, bounded independence number digraph} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 116, Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)

Let F be a family of graphs. A canonical vertex deletion problem corresponding to F is defined as follows: given an n-vertex undirected graph G and a weight function w: V(G) - >R^+, find a minimum weight subset S subseteq V(G) such that G-S belongs to F. This is known as Weighted F Vertex Deletion problem. In this paper we devise a recursive scheme to obtain O(log^{O(1)} n)-approximation algorithms for such problems, building upon the classical technique of finding balanced separators in a graph. Roughly speaking, our scheme applies to those problems, where an optimum solution S together with a well-structured set X, form a balanced separator of the input graph. In this paper, we obtain the first O(log^{O(1)} n)-approximation algorithms for the following vertex deletion problems.
- Let {F} be a finite set of graphs containing a planar graph, and F=G(F) be the family of graphs such that every graph H in G(F) excludes all graphs in F as minors. The vertex deletion problem corresponding to F=G(F) is the Weighted Planar F-Minor-Free Deletion (WPF-MFD) problem. We give randomized and deterministic approximation algorithms for WPF-MFD with ratios O(log^{1.5} n) and O(log^2 n), respectively. Previously, only a randomized constant factor approximation algorithm for the unweighted version of the problem was known [FOCS 2012].
- We give an O(log^2 n)-factor approximation algorithm for Weighted Chordal Vertex Deletion (WCVD), the vertex deletion problem to the family of chordal graphs. On the way to this algorithm, we also obtain a constant factor approximation algorithm for Multicut on chordal graphs.
- We give an O(log^3 n)-factor approximation algorithm for Weighted Distance Hereditary Vertex Deletion (WDHVD), also known as Weighted Rankwidth-1 Vertex Deletion (WR-1VD). This is the vertex deletion problem to the family of distance hereditary graphs, or equivalently, the family of graphs of rankwidth one.
We believe that our recursive scheme can be applied to obtain O(log^{O(1)} n)-approximation algorithms for many other problems as well.

Akanksha Agrawal, Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Polylogarithmic Approximation Algorithms for Weighted-F-Deletion Problems. In Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 116, pp. 1:1-1:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.1, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Polylogarithmic Approximation Algorithms for Weighted-F-Deletion Problems}}, booktitle = {Approximation, Randomization, and Combinatorial Optimization. Algorithms and Techniques (APPROX/RANDOM 2018)}, pages = {1:1--1:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-085-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {116}, editor = {Blais, Eric and Jansen, Klaus and D. P. Rolim, Jos\'{e} and Steurer, David}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.1}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-94058}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.APPROX-RANDOM.2018.1}, annote = {Keywords: Approximation Algorithms, Planar- F-Deletion, Separator} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 96, 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)

The duality between packing and covering problems lies at the heart of fundamental combinatorial proofs, as well as well-known algorithmic methods such as the primal-dual method for approximation and win/win-approach for parameterized analysis. The very essence of this duality is encompassed by a well-known property called the Erdös-Pósa property, which has been extensively studied for over five decades. Informally, we say that a class of graphs F admits the Erdös-Pósa property if there exists f such that for any graph G, either G has vertex-disjoint "copies" of the graphs in F, or there is a set S \subseteq V(G) of f(k) vertices that intersects all copies of the graphs in F. In the context of any graph class G, the most natural question that arises in this regard is as follows - do obstructions to G have the Erdös-Pósa property? Having this view in mind, we focus on the class of interval graphs. Structural properties of interval graphs are intensively studied, also as they lead to the design of polynomial-time algorithms for classic problems that are NP-hard on general graphs. Nevertheless, about one of the most basic properties of such graphs, namely, the Erdös-Pósa property, nothing is known. In this paper, we settle this anomaly: we prove that the family of obstructions to interval graphs - namely, the family of chordless cycles and ATs---admits the Erdös-Pósa property. Our main theorem immediately results in an algorithm to decide whether an input graph G has vertex-disjoint ATs and chordless cycles, or there exists a set of O(k^2 log k) vertices in G that hits all ATs and chordless cycles.

Akanksha Agrawal, Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Erdös-Pósa Property of Obstructions to Interval Graphs. In 35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 96, pp. 7:1-7:15, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{agrawal_et_al:LIPIcs.STACS.2018.7, author = {Agrawal, Akanksha and Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Erd\"{o}s-P\'{o}sa Property of Obstructions to Interval Graphs}}, booktitle = {35th Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS 2018)}, pages = {7:1--7:15}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-062-0}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {96}, editor = {Niedermeier, Rolf and Vall\'{e}e, Brigitte}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.7}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-84815}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.STACS.2018.7}, annote = {Keywords: Interval Graphs, Obstructions, Erd\"{o}s-P\'{o}sa Property} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 94, 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)

Deterministic polynomial-time computation of a representation of a transversal matroid is a longstanding open problem. We present a deterministic computation of a so-called union representation of a transversal matroid in time quasipolynomial in the rank of the matroid. More precisely, we output a collection of linear matroids such that a set is independent in the transversal matroid if and only if it is independent in at least one of them. Our proof directly implies that if one is interested in preserving independent sets of size at most r, for a given r\in\mathbb{N}, but does not care whether larger independent sets are preserved, then a union representation can be computed deterministically in time quasipolynomial in r. This consequence is of independent interest, and sheds light on the power of union~representation.
Our main result also has applications in Parameterized Complexity. First, it yields a fast computation of representative sets, and due to our relaxation in the context of r, this computation also extends to (standard) truncations. In turn, this computation enables to efficiently solve various problems, such as subcases of subgraph isomorphism, motif search and packing problems, in the presence of color lists. Such problems have been studied to model scenarios where pairs of elements to be matched may not be identical but only similar, and color lists aim to describe the set of compatible elements associated with each element.

Daniel Lokshtanov, Pranabendu Misra, Fahad Panolan, Saket Saurabh, and Meirav Zehavi. Quasipolynomial Representation of Transversal Matroids with Applications in Parameterized Complexity. In 9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 94, pp. 32:1-32:13, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2018)

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@InProceedings{lokshtanov_et_al:LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.32, author = {Lokshtanov, Daniel and Misra, Pranabendu and Panolan, Fahad and Saurabh, Saket and Zehavi, Meirav}, title = {{Quasipolynomial Representation of Transversal Matroids with Applications in Parameterized Complexity}}, booktitle = {9th Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science Conference (ITCS 2018)}, pages = {32:1--32:13}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-060-6}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2018}, volume = {94}, editor = {Karlin, Anna R.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.32}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-83144}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ITCS.2018.32}, annote = {Keywords: travserval matroid, matroid representation, union representation, representative set} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 65, 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)

We study some well-known graph contraction problems in the recently introduced framework of lossy kernelization. In classical kernelization, given an instance (I,k) of a parameterized problem, we are interested in obtaining (in polynomial time) an equivalent instance (I',k') of the same problem whose size is bounded by a function in k. This notion however has a major limitation. Given an approximate solution to the instance (I',k'), we can say nothing about the original instance (I,k). To handle this issue, among others, the framework of lossy kernelization was introduced. In this framework, for a constant alpha, given an instance (I,k) we obtain an instance (I',k') of the same problem such that, for every c>1, any c-approximate solution to (I',k') can be turned into a (c*alpha)-approximate solution to the original instance (I, k) in polynomial time. Naturally, we are interested in a polynomial time algorithm for this task, and further require that |I'| + k' = k^{O(1)}. Akin to the notion of polynomial time approximation schemes in approximation algorithms, a parameterized problem is said to admit a polynomial size approximate kernelization scheme (PSAKS) if it admits a polynomial size alpha-approximate kernel for every approximation parameter alpha > 1. In this work, we design PSAKSs for Tree Contraction, Star Contraction, Out-Tree Contraction and Cactus Contraction problems. These problems do not admit polynomial kernels, and we show that each of them admit a PSAKS with running time k^{f(alpha)}|I|^{O(1)} that returns an instance of size k^{g(alpha)} where f(alpha) and g(alpha) are constants depending on alpha.

R. Krithika, Pranabendu Misra, Ashutosh Rai, and Prafullkumar Tale. Lossy Kernels for Graph Contraction Problems. In 36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 65, pp. 23:1-23:14, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2016)

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@InProceedings{krithika_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.23, author = {Krithika, R. and Misra, Pranabendu and Rai, Ashutosh and Tale, Prafullkumar}, title = {{Lossy Kernels for Graph Contraction Problems}}, booktitle = {36th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2016)}, pages = {23:1--23:14}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-027-9}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2016}, volume = {65}, editor = {Lal, Akash and Akshay, S. and Saurabh, Saket and Sen, Sandeep}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.23}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-68587}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2016.23}, annote = {Keywords: parameterized complexity, lossy kernelization, graph theory, edge contraction problems} }

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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 45, 35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015)

Problems of the following kind have been the focus of much recent research in the realm of parameterized complexity: Given an input graph (digraph) on n vertices and a positive integer parameter k, find if there exist k edges(arcs) whose deletion results in a graph that satisfies some specified parity constraints. In particular, when the objective is to obtain a connected graph in which all the
vertices have even degrees--where the resulting graph is Eulerian,the problem is called Undirected Eulerian Edge Deletion. The corresponding
problem in digraphs where the resulting graph should be strongly connected and every vertex should have the same in-degree as its
out-degree is called Directed Eulerian Edge Deletion. Cygan et al.[Algorithmica, 2014] showed that these problems are fixed parameter tractable (FPT), and gave algorithms with the running time
2^O(k log k)n^O(1). They also asked, as an open problem, whether there exist FPT algorithms which solve these problems in time
2^O(k)n^O(1). It was also posed as an open problem at the School on Parameterized Algorithms and Complexity 2014, Bedlewo, Poland.
In this paper we answer their question in the affirmative: using the technique of computing representative families of co-graphic matroids we design algorithms which solve these problems in time 2^O(k)n^O(1). The crucial insight we bring to these problems is to view the solution as an independent set of a co-graphic matroid. We believe that this view-point/approach will be useful in other problems where one of the constraints that need to be satisfied is that of connectivity.

Prachi Goyal, Pranabendu Misra, Fahad Panolan, Geevarghese Philip, and Saket Saurabh. Finding Even Subgraphs Even Faster. In 35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 45, pp. 434-447, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2015)

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@InProceedings{goyal_et_al:LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.434, author = {Goyal, Prachi and Misra, Pranabendu and Panolan, Fahad and Philip, Geevarghese and Saurabh, Saket}, title = {{Finding Even Subgraphs Even Faster}}, booktitle = {35th IARCS Annual Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science (FSTTCS 2015)}, pages = {434--447}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-939897-97-2}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2015}, volume = {45}, editor = {Harsha, Prahladh and Ramalingam, G.}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.434}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-56336}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.FSTTCS.2015.434}, annote = {Keywords: Eulerian Edge Deletion, FPT, Representative Family.} }

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