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**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We revisit a graph width parameter that we dub bipartite treewidth, along with its associated graph decomposition that we call bipartite tree decomposition. Bipartite treewidth can be seen as a common generalization of treewidth and the odd cycle transversal number. Intuitively, a bipartite tree decomposition is a tree decomposition whose bags induce almost bipartite graphs and whose adhesions contain at most one vertex from the bipartite part of any other bag, while the width of such decomposition measures how far the bags are from being bipartite. Adapted from a tree decomposition originally defined by Demaine, Hajiaghayi, and Kawarabayashi [SODA 2010] and explicitly defined by Tazari [Theor. Comput. Sci. 2012], bipartite treewidth appears to play a crucial role for solving problems related to odd-minors, which have recently attracted considerable attention. As a first step toward a theory for solving these problems efficiently, the main goal of this paper is to develop dynamic programming techniques to solve problems on graphs of small bipartite treewidth. For such graphs, we provide a number of para-NP-completeness results, FPT-algorithms, and XP-algorithms, as well as several open problems. In particular, we show that K_t-Subgraph-Cover, Weighted Vertex Cover/Independent Set, Odd Cycle Transversal, and Maximum Weighted Cut are FPT parameterized by bipartite treewidth. We also provide the following complexity dichotomy when H is a 2-connected graph, for each of the H-Subgraph-Packing, H-Induced-Packing, H-Scattered-Packing, and H-Odd-Minor-Packing problems: if H is bipartite, then the problem is para-NP-complete parameterized by bipartite treewidth while, if H is non-bipartite, then the problem is solvable in XP-time. Beyond bipartite treewidth, we define 1-ℋ-treewidth by replacing the bipartite graph class by any graph class ℋ. Most of the technology developed here also works for this more general parameter.

Lars Jaffke, Laure Morelle, Ignasi Sau, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Dynamic Programming on Bipartite Tree Decompositions. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 26:1-26:22, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{jaffke_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.26, author = {Jaffke, Lars and Morelle, Laure and Sau, Ignasi and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.}, title = {{Dynamic Programming on Bipartite Tree Decompositions}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {26:1--26:22}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.26}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194455}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.26}, annote = {Keywords: tree decomposition, bipartite graphs, dynamic programming, odd-minors, packing, maximum cut, vertex cover, independent set, odd cycle transversal} }

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PACE Solver Description

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 285, 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)

We describe Touiouidth, a twin-width solver for the exact-track of the 2023 PACE Challenge: Twin Width. Our solver is based on a simple branch and bound algorithm with search space reductions and is implemented in C++.

Gaétan Berthe, Yoann Coudert-Osmont, Alexander Dobler, Laure Morelle, Amadeus Reinald, and Mathis Rocton. PACE Solver Description: Touiouidth. In 18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 285, pp. 38:1-38:4, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{berthe_et_al:LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.38, author = {Berthe, Ga\'{e}tan and Coudert-Osmont, Yoann and Dobler, Alexander and Morelle, Laure and Reinald, Amadeus and Rocton, Mathis}, title = {{PACE Solver Description: Touiouidth}}, booktitle = {18th International Symposium on Parameterized and Exact Computation (IPEC 2023)}, pages = {38:1--38:4}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-305-8}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {285}, editor = {Misra, Neeldhara and Wahlstr\"{o}m, Magnus}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.38}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-194576}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.IPEC.2023.38}, annote = {Keywords: Twinwidth, Pace Challenge} }

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Track A: Algorithms, Complexity and Games

**Published in:** LIPIcs, Volume 261, 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)

Let G be a minor-closed graph class and let G be an n-vertex graph. We say that G is a k-apex of G if G contains a set S of at most k vertices such that G⧵S belongs to G. Our first result is an algorithm that decides whether G is a k-apex of G in time 2^poly(k)⋅n². This algorithm improves the previous one, given by Sau, Stamoulis, and Thilikos [ICALP 2020, TALG 2022], whose running time was 2^poly(k)⋅n³. The elimination distance of G to G, denoted by ed_G(G), is the minimum number of rounds required to reduce each connected component of G to a graph in G by removing one vertex from each connected component in each round. Bulian and Dawar [Algorithmica 2017] proved the existence of an FPT-algorithm, with parameter k, to decide whether ed_G(G) ≤ k. This algorithm is based on the computability of the minor-obstructions and its dependence on k is not explicit. We extend the techniques used in the first algorithm to decide whether ed_G(G) ≤ k in time 2^{2^{2^poly(k)}}⋅n². This is the first algorithm for this problem with an explicit parametric dependence in k. In the special case where G excludes some apex-graph as a minor, we give two alternative algorithms, one running in time 2^{2^O(k²log k)}⋅n² and one running in time 2^{poly(k)}⋅n³. As a stepping stone for these algorithms, we provide an algorithm that decides whether ed_G(G) ≤ k in time 2^O(tw⋅ k + tw log tw)⋅n, where tw is the treewidth of G. This algorithm combines the dynamic programming framework of Reidl, Rossmanith, Villaamil, and Sikdar [ICALP 2014] for the particular case where G contains only the empty graph (i.e., for treedepth) with the representative-based techniques introduced by Baste, Sau, and Thilikos [SODA 2020]. In all the algorithmic complexities above, poly is a polynomial function whose degree depends on G, while the hidden constants also depend on G. Finally, we provide explicit upper bounds on the size of the graphs in the minor-obstruction set of the class of graphs E_k(G) = {G ∣ ed_G(G) ≤ k}.

Laure Morelle, Ignasi Sau, Giannos Stamoulis, and Dimitrios M. Thilikos. Faster Parameterized Algorithms for Modification Problems to Minor-Closed Classes. In 50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023). Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs), Volume 261, pp. 93:1-93:19, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik (2023)

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@InProceedings{morelle_et_al:LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.93, author = {Morelle, Laure and Sau, Ignasi and Stamoulis, Giannos and Thilikos, Dimitrios M.}, title = {{Faster Parameterized Algorithms for Modification Problems to Minor-Closed Classes}}, booktitle = {50th International Colloquium on Automata, Languages, and Programming (ICALP 2023)}, pages = {93:1--93:19}, series = {Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics (LIPIcs)}, ISBN = {978-3-95977-278-5}, ISSN = {1868-8969}, year = {2023}, volume = {261}, editor = {Etessami, Kousha and Feige, Uriel and Puppis, Gabriele}, publisher = {Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum f{\"u}r Informatik}, address = {Dagstuhl, Germany}, URL = {https://drops.dagstuhl.de/entities/document/10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.93}, URN = {urn:nbn:de:0030-drops-181458}, doi = {10.4230/LIPIcs.ICALP.2023.93}, annote = {Keywords: Graph minors, Parameterized algorithms, Graph modification problems, Vertex deletion, Elimination distance, Irrelevant vertex technique, Flat Wall Theorem, Obstructions} }

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